Oil pollution in the Black Sea marine organisms during 2003-2006: mussel, shellfish, and algae

Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı

Istanbul Aydın University, İnönü Cad., 40, Sefaköy, Istanbul, TURKEY


Oil pollution was investigated in mussel, shellfish and 3 green, 1 brown and 2 red algae collected different part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The oil pollution was found in the samples collected from the east part of the Black Sea were found more polluted than west and middle part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The maximum oil pollution levels in the mussels samples collected in 2005-2006 are similar as 106.01-107.33 μg/L wet weight. Oil pollution found in mussel, Rapana venosa and algae were found high in east part of the Black Sea coast of the Black Sea. The maximum oil level in R.venosa was found as 15.80 μg/g in Yeşilırmak River mouth. The high pollution of algae samples were found as 141.83 μg/g in Enteromorpha compressa collected from Samsun Harbour. In generally high concentration of oil in the Turkish Black Sea coast have been found in harbour samples. Limited water exchanged in harbour is the main cause of the oil contamination. In generally oil pollution in algae was higher than in mussel and in R. venosa.

Keywords: The Black Sea, oil pollution, mussel, shellfish, algae

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Impact of urban wastewaters on groundwater quality in the watershed of Middle Sebou (Morocco)

Elhoussine Derwich, Zineb Benziane, Lahcen Benaabidate, Driss Belghyti

University of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, CURI, P.O. Box: 2626, Fez 30000, MOROCCO
Faculty of Sciences Dehar Mehraz, Department of Biology, P.O. Box: 1796, Atlas, Fez 30000, MOROCCO
Laboratory of Georesources and Environment, FST – Fez, P.O. Box: 2202, Fez 30000, MOROCCO
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, P.O. Box: 133, Kenitra 14000, MOROCCO


The study has been carried out in November 2007 and July 2008 on eight wells located in the vicinity of Fez stream and Sebou River which waters are polluted from discharges issued from the urban area of Fez city. The obtained results showed important concentrations in heavy metals mainly in wells drilled inside the alluvial aquifers and located more meadows of the Fez stream and Sebou River. The comparison of the contents of heavy metals between shallow aquifers and surface waters along Sebou River indicated a very narrow correlation which can be explained by hydrogeologic interaction between these waters.

Keywords: Groundwater, heavy metals, pollution, Fez stream, Sebou River, Morocco

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Assesment of dissolved oxygen in coastal waters of Benghazi, Libya

Joel Prashant Jack, Amal Tahir Abdsalam, Naima Saad Khalifa

Department of Environment, Faculty of Public Health, Post Box: 18251 Al- Arab Medical University, Benghazi, LIBYA


Study was conducted regularly from December 2008 till March 2009 in three habitats in Benghazi coast. The water parameters were taken into consideration and sampling was conducted on surface waters and 30 cm below in the coastal waters by using digital portable meters. Estimation of solid waste material present in the coast was taken to correlate the pollutants present in coastal waters and its influence on dissolved oxygen. A total of 106 samples are sampled and analyzed in three different habitats during December 2008 until March 2009. Caria 56 (52.83%) followed by Zilayana 31 (29.24%) and thirdly Sabre 19 (17.92%). The difference of sampling is because of varied reasons and the available facilities at the site of sampling. Table’s 1-17 shows range, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance for parameters like water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH. Finally, the pollutants in the beach are dominated by plastic in all the three habitats with 36.01% in Zilayana, 33. 47% in Caria and 54.20% in Sabre. Finally it is concluded from the studies that, dissolved oxygen levels will depend on physiochemical parameters, especially temperature, salinity and pH. In addition to that, presence of large amount of plastic and other disposals may pose a severe threat to coastal ecosystem in turn increasing the surface temperatures and over bloom in turn will have an impact on dissolved oxygen and pH.

Keywords: Dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, temperature, pH, pollutants

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Investigations of the rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) in the Northern Marmara Sea

Bayram Öztürk

University of Istanbul, Faculty of Fisheries Ordu Caddesi No: 200, Laleli 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY


Rose shrimp is one of the important commercial shrimp species in the Marmara Sea. Data from the coastline between Silivri/Istanbul and Tekirdağ during 1987-1988 are presented in this paper. Sampling was performed with shrimp beam trawling. Catch composition and stocks were investigated. In 1987 the carapax length varied between 85 mm and 346 mm. Maximum length class was 186 mm. In 1988 the carapax length varied between 85 mm and 306 mm. The maximum length class was 126 mm. As by-catch, 24 fish species and 20 invertebrate species were caught.

Keywords: Sea of Marmara, Rose shrimp, stocks, catch composition, by-catch

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Meiobenthic bristle worms (Polychaeta) of the western Black Sea shelf

Ludmila V. Vorobyova, Olena S. Bondarenko

Odessa Branch, A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (OB IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 37 Pushkinskaya Street, 65125 ODESSA


The species composition, frequency and quantitative distribution of polychaetes (larvae, adult forms) which in size belong to meiobenthos have been studied. Thirty four species of polychaetes, six of which belong to eumeiobenthos have been discovered. In species composition the Bulgarian shelf (33 species) differs significantly from the Romanian (22 species) and Ukrainian (21 species). The mean density of assemblages is higher on the Bulgarian shelf. Maximum indices of abundance occur at a 15 m depth.

Keywords: Black Sea, western shelf, meiobenthos, polychaetes, eumeiobenthos, pseudomeiobenthos

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Oil pollution in the surface water of Sakarya River

Esra Billur Balcıoğlu, Bayram Öztürk

Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Marine Biology Department, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


In this paper the oil pollution was investigated seasonally in the mouth and 4 stations of Sakarya River water during February 2008- January 2009. The oil pollution levels were determined by UVF, using Russian crude oil and chrysene as reference materials. The maximum oil level in river water was found as 37.47 μg/L at station 2 in November-2008 and 45.38 μg/L at station 4 in April- 2008. The highest polluted area in all time is the station 2 where fishing vessels and yachts stations. The comparison of results in Sakarya River with the rivers of Turkey flowed to Black Sea as Yenice, Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak, the oil pollution found is lower in Sakarya River. The oil pollution level found in Sakarya River is higher than the limit value given by UNESCO.

Keywords: Sakarya River, oil pollution, surface water

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UNESCO (1982). Manual and Guides (Manuals for surveillance of Dissolved/ Dispersed oil and petroleum hydrocarbons in sea water and Beaches)

Üstün-Kurnaz, S. and Büyükgüngör, H. (2007). Kızılırmak Deltası kıyı şeridinde su ve midye örneklerinde petrol kirliliği İTÜ Dergisi Su Kirlenmesi Kontrolü, 17: 15-22.


A method for hydrogen sulfide removal in air of submarine by Lewatit TP 208

Kasım Cemal Güven, Nazım Çubukçu

Istanbul Aydın University, Inönü Cad., 40, Sefaköy, Istanbul, TURKEY
Göktürk Merkez Mah. Gül Sok. 4, Eyüp, Istanbul, TURKEY


In this paper is proposed a method to remove the hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine. This method is based on the absorption of hydrogen sulfide by Lewatit TP 208. Soda lime cartilage is commonly used in submarine for removing of moisture and carbon dioxide in air. In this process soda lime cartilage was combined with Lewatit TP 208. The amount of Lewatit TP 208 required for 710 mair of submarine was 11 kg. The problem for submarine is hydrogen sulfide contents of seawater during in submerged condition. The proposal technique can remove of moisture and hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine. This process is the first record to remove the hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine.

Keywords: Hydrogen sulfide, toxicity, in air, Lewatit TP 208, submarine air

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Bagarinao, T. and Vetter, R.D. (1989). Sulfide tolerance and detoxification in shallow-water marine fishes. Marine Biol. 103: 291-302.

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Marine protected areas in the high seas of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas, some proposals

Bayram Öztürk

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY


Marine living resources are diminishing in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Sea and marine biological diversity is facing various threats such as overfishing, ship originated pollution, exotic species and by-catch. Designation of High Sea Marine Protected Areas [HSMPA] is believed will improve protection of the marine biodiversity in the Eastern Mediterranean including the Aegean Sea. Concerted action and international cooperation is needed for the joint management effort in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Designation of HSMPA in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas will be examined. Five HSMPA in the Aegean Sea and three in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are proposed following the criteria in the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), which include uniqueness, life history stages of species, importance for threatened, endangered species and or habitats, vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity or slow recovery and biological productivity.

Keywords: Aegean Sea, high seas, marine protected areas, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey

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Öztürk, B., Öztürk, A.A., Dede, A. (2001). Dolphin by-catch in the Swordfish driftnet fishery in the Aegean Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit. 36:208.

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Zaitsev, Y., Öztürk, B. (2001). Exotic species in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Turkish Marine Research Foundation. Publication number 8. Istanbul.





Heavy metals in livers, gills and muscle of Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) fish species grown in the Dardanelles

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu, Derya Güray, Adem Tekinay

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
18 Mart University, Faculty of Fisheries, 17100, Çanakkale, TURKEY


Heavy metals accumulation assessment was carried out in the livers, gills and muscle tissues of the Sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) fish species grown in an experimental fish farm in the Dardanelles. The concentrations of the metals in muscle are (mg kg-1, dry wt) Al 37±28; Cd 0.19±0.22; Cr 3.5±1.7; Cu 3.0±0.5; Fe 41±0.5; Hg 0.027±0.007; Pb 20±15; Zn <0.01 and Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg and Fe were found in the order of liver>gill>muscle while the Pb and Zn levels follows the sequence gill>liver>muscle. These Pb and Cd levels are near the permissible limits for human consumption.

Keywords: Trace metals, fish, livers, gills, Dardanelles

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Abreu, S.N., Pereira, E, Vale, C. and Duarte, A.C. (2000). Accumulation of mercury in Seabass from a contaminated lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Mar. Poll. Bull. 40: 193-7.

Catsiki, V.A., Strogyloudi, E. (1999). Survey of metal levels in common fish species from Greek waters. Sci. Total. Environ. 237-238: 387-400.

Dugo, G., Pera, L.L., Bruzesse, A., Pellicano, T.M. and Turco, V.L. (2006). Concentration of Cd (Il), Cu (Il), Pb(ll), Se(IV), and Zn(ll) in cultured Seabass (D. labrax) tissues from Tyrrhenian sea and Sicilian sea by derivative stripping potentiometry. Food Control 17: 146-152.

FAO/WHO. (2004). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series. No. 922.

Farkas, A., Salanki, J., and Varanka, I. (2000). Heavy metal concentrations in fish of Lake Balaton. Lakes and Reservoirs. Res. Management 5: 271-9.

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ITS (2000). The Ministry of the Agriculture of Turkey. Rep. 5.

Saglık, S., Alparslan, M., Gezgin, T., Çetintürk, K., Tekinay, A; and Güven, K.C. (2003). Fatty acid composition of wild and cultivated gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105: 104-107.

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Heavy metal levels in sea water and sediments of Zonguldak, Turkey

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY


Heavy metal levels were measured in seawater and sediment in Zonguldak which is on the Black sea shore of Turkey. The samples were collected near the industrial areas and city beaches. Maximum concentrations of metals dissolved in seawater were found (nM) Cd 15.0±0.98 around Çatalağzı Power Station, Cr 112±8.6 in Alaplı Creek delta, Mn 715±8.3 in Filyos creek delta, Cu 122±1.5, Ni 142±10.6, Pb 39±9.0 and Zn 834±4.1in Zonguldak city beaches. Heavy metal levels in sediment were found as (μg/g) Cd 0.47±0.34, Cr 67.95±27.6, Cu 30.21±9.27, Mn 274.4±74.8, Ni 37.03±13.25, Pb 39.14±11.22, and Zn 84.6±18.5. Heavy metal concentrations were compared with the US EPA limitations and the other localities and seawater found to be highly polluted than the other Black Sea shores and similar to Rize and Hopa waters. According to recommendations of US EPA under the priority toxic pollutants list Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn levels are above the limits in Zonguldak seawater. Metal levels in sediment samples were found as polluted as the estuarine areas of other countries in the region.

Keywords: Heavy metal, sea water, sediment, Black Sea

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Bakan, G. and Özkoç, H.B. (2007). An ecological risk assessment of the impact of heavy metals in surface sediments on biota from the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey. Int. J. Environ. Studies 64: 45—57.

Balkis, N., Topcuoglu, S., Güven, K.C., Öztürk, B., Topaloglu, B., Kirbasoglu, Ç. and Aksu, A. (2007). Heavy metals in shallow sediments from the Black sea, Marmara sea and Aegean sea regions of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environ. 13: 147-153.

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