OIL POLLUTION IN THE BLACK SEA MARINE ORGANISMS DURING 2003-2006: MUSSEL, SHELLFISH, AND ALGAE

Oil pollution in the Black Sea marine organisms during 2003-2006: mussel, shellfish, and algae

Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı

Istanbul Aydın University, İnönü Cad., 40, Sefaköy, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

Oil pollution was investigated in mussel, shellfish and 3 green, 1 brown and 2 red algae collected different part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The oil pollution was found in the samples collected from the east part of the Black Sea were found more polluted than west and middle part of the Black Sea coast of Turkey. The maximum oil pollution levels in the mussels samples collected in 2005-2006 are similar as 106.01-107.33 μg/L wet weight. Oil pollution found in mussel, Rapana venosa and algae were found high in east part of the Black Sea coast of the Black Sea. The maximum oil level in R.venosa was found as 15.80 μg/g in Yeşilırmak River mouth. The high pollution of algae samples were found as 141.83 μg/g in Enteromorpha compressa collected from Samsun Harbour. In generally high concentration of oil in the Turkish Black Sea coast have been found in harbour samples. Limited water exchanged in harbour is the main cause of the oil contamination. In generally oil pollution in algae was higher than in mussel and in R. venosa.

Keywords: The Black Sea, oil pollution, mussel, shellfish, algae

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IMPACT OF URBAN WASTEWATERS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE WATERSHED OF MIDDLE SEBOU (MOROCCO)

Impact of urban wastewaters on groundwater quality in the watershed of Middle Sebou (Morocco)

Elhoussine Derwich, Zineb Benziane, Lahcen Benaabidate, Driss Belghyti

University of Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, CURI, P.O. Box: 2626, Fez 30000, MOROCCO
Faculty of Sciences Dehar Mehraz, Department of Biology, P.O. Box: 1796, Atlas, Fez 30000, MOROCCO
Laboratory of Georesources and Environment, FST – Fez, P.O. Box: 2202, Fez 30000, MOROCCO
Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, P.O. Box: 133, Kenitra 14000, MOROCCO

Abstract

The study has been carried out in November 2007 and July 2008 on eight wells located in the vicinity of Fez stream and Sebou River which waters are polluted from discharges issued from the urban area of Fez city. The obtained results showed important concentrations in heavy metals mainly in wells drilled inside the alluvial aquifers and located more meadows of the Fez stream and Sebou River. The comparison of the contents of heavy metals between shallow aquifers and surface waters along Sebou River indicated a very narrow correlation which can be explained by hydrogeologic interaction between these waters.

Keywords: Groundwater, heavy metals, pollution, Fez stream, Sebou River, Morocco

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ASSESMENT OF DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN COASTAL WATERS OF BENGHAZI, LIBYA.

Assesment of dissolved oxygen in coastal waters of Benghazi, Libya

Joel Prashant Jack, Amal Tahir Abdsalam, Naima Saad Khalifa

Department of Environment, Faculty of Public Health, Post Box: 18251 Al- Arab Medical University, Benghazi, LIBYA

Abstract

Study was conducted regularly from December 2008 till March 2009 in three habitats in Benghazi coast. The water parameters were taken into consideration and sampling was conducted on surface waters and 30 cm below in the coastal waters by using digital portable meters. Estimation of solid waste material present in the coast was taken to correlate the pollutants present in coastal waters and its influence on dissolved oxygen. A total of 106 samples are sampled and analyzed in three different habitats during December 2008 until March 2009. Caria 56 (52.83%) followed by Zilayana 31 (29.24%) and thirdly Sabre 19 (17.92%). The difference of sampling is because of varied reasons and the available facilities at the site of sampling. Table’s 1-17 shows range, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance for parameters like water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH. Finally, the pollutants in the beach are dominated by plastic in all the three habitats with 36.01% in Zilayana, 33. 47% in Caria and 54.20% in Sabre. Finally it is concluded from the studies that, dissolved oxygen levels will depend on physiochemical parameters, especially temperature, salinity and pH. In addition to that, presence of large amount of plastic and other disposals may pose a severe threat to coastal ecosystem in turn increasing the surface temperatures and over bloom in turn will have an impact on dissolved oxygen and pH.

Keywords: Dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, temperature, pH, pollutants

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INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ROSE SHRIMP PARAPENAEUS LONGIROSTRIS (LUCAS, 1846) IN THE NORTHERN MARMARA SEA

Investigations of the rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846) in the Northern Marmara Sea

Bayram Öztürk

University of Istanbul, Faculty of Fisheries Ordu Caddesi No: 200, Laleli 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

Rose shrimp is one of the important commercial shrimp species in the Marmara Sea. Data from the coastline between Silivri/Istanbul and Tekirdağ during 1987-1988 are presented in this paper. Sampling was performed with shrimp beam trawling. Catch composition and stocks were investigated. In 1987 the carapax length varied between 85 mm and 346 mm. Maximum length class was 186 mm. In 1988 the carapax length varied between 85 mm and 306 mm. The maximum length class was 126 mm. As by-catch, 24 fish species and 20 invertebrate species were caught.

Keywords: Sea of Marmara, Rose shrimp, stocks, catch composition, by-catch

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MEIOBENTHIC BRISTLE WORMS (POLYCHAETA) OF THE WESTERN BLACK SEA SHELF

Meiobenthic bristle worms (Polychaeta) of the western Black Sea shelf

Ludmila V. Vorobyova, Olena S. Bondarenko

Odessa Branch, A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas (OB IBSS), National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 37 Pushkinskaya Street, 65125 ODESSA

Abstract

The species composition, frequency and quantitative distribution of polychaetes (larvae, adult forms) which in size belong to meiobenthos have been studied. Thirty four species of polychaetes, six of which belong to eumeiobenthos have been discovered. In species composition the Bulgarian shelf (33 species) differs significantly from the Romanian (22 species) and Ukrainian (21 species). The mean density of assemblages is higher on the Bulgarian shelf. Maximum indices of abundance occur at a 15 m depth.

Keywords: Black Sea, western shelf, meiobenthos, polychaetes, eumeiobenthos, pseudomeiobenthos

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References

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Hulings, N. and Gray, J. (1971). A manual for the study of meiofauna. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology. 7 8 : 8 4 p.

Kiseleva, M.I. (1985). Distribution of benthos in the lower shelf zone on the coasts of Crimea and the Caucasus. Institute of Biology of Southern Seas. Sevastopol, 21 pp. Dep. VINITI 24.07.85 N 5390-B85 (in Russian).

Kiseleva, M.I. (1985). The benthos of soft Black Sea sediments. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 165 pp. (in Russian).

Kiseleva, M.I. (2004). Polychaetes (Polychaeta) of the Black and Azov seas. Apatity, 409 pp. (in Russian).

Kuhl, O.L. (1979). Reproduction and survival of the pileworm Nereis succinea in higher Salton Sea salinities. Biol. Bull. 157: 153-165.

Losovskaya, G.V. (1988). Longterm changes in the composition and distribution of polychaetes in the northwestern Black Sea. Gidrobiologicheskii zhurnal 24: 21-25 (in Russian).

Mare, M.F. (1942). A study of a marine benthic community with special reference to the microorganisms. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 25: 517 – 554.

Marinov, T. (1977). Polychaeta. Fauna in Bulgaria. Sofia, 6: 258 p. (in Bulgarian).

McIntyre, A.D. (1969). Ecology of marine meiobenthos. Biol. Rev. 44: 245-290.

Sergeeva, N.G., Zaika, V.E. and Kiseleva, M.I. (1997). Life Cycle and Ecological Demands of Larval and Adult Vigtorniella zaikai Kiseleva 1992 (Chrysopetalidae) in the Black Sea. Bull. Mar. Sci., Fifth Inter. Polychaete Conf. Held. 2-7 July 1995, China. 60: 622-623.

Thorson, G. (1966). Some factors influencing the recruitment and establishment of marine benthic communities. Netherl. J. Sea Res. 3: 267-293.

Vorobyeva, L. V., Bondarenko, O. S. and Isaak, O. S. (2008). Meiobenthic polychaetes in the northwestern Black Sea//Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies. XXXVII, l: 1-13.

Vorobyova, L. V. (1999). Meiobenthos of the Ukrainian shelf of the Black and Azov seas. Kiev: Naukova dumka, 300 p. (in Russian).

Vorobyova, L. V. and Bondarenko, O. S. (2007). Polychaetes as components of meiobenthos of the northwestern Black Sea. Ecological safety of the coastal and shelf zones and complex use of shelf resources. Sevastopol, 15: 473-481 (in Russian).

OIL POLLUTION IN THE SURFACE WATER OF SAKARYA RIVER

Oil pollution in the surface water of Sakarya River

Esra Billur Balcıoğlu, Bayram Öztürk

Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Marine Biology Department, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

In this paper the oil pollution was investigated seasonally in the mouth and 4 stations of Sakarya River water during February 2008- January 2009. The oil pollution levels were determined by UVF, using Russian crude oil and chrysene as reference materials. The maximum oil level in river water was found as 37.47 μg/L at station 2 in November-2008 and 45.38 μg/L at station 4 in April- 2008. The highest polluted area in all time is the station 2 where fishing vessels and yachts stations. The comparison of results in Sakarya River with the rivers of Turkey flowed to Black Sea as Yenice, Kızılırmak and Yeşilırmak, the oil pollution found is lower in Sakarya River. The oil pollution level found in Sakarya River is higher than the limit value given by UNESCO.

Keywords: Sakarya River, oil pollution, surface water

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References

Altuğ, G. (2008). Sapanca Gölü’ nde petrol kirliliği. Sapanca Gölü’ ne Bilimsel Açıdan Bakış (Okgerman, H. and Altuğ, G., Eds). Tüdav Yayınları No. 29. 156-161.

Bojkova, D. (1991). Oil products pollution of sea waters in Varna Bay, The Black Sea Symposium, 16-18 Sept. 1991, Istanbul, Turkey.

Çalımlı, M.H. and Pulatsü, S. (2003). Yukarı Sakarya Nehri’nde fosfor fraksiyonları ile klorofil-a konsantrasyonlarının mevsimsel değişimi. SDÜ. Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fak. Derg. 9: 34-39.

Çelik, N. and Pulatsü, S. (2003). Yukarı Sakarya Nehri’nde azot fraksiyonları ile toplam demir ve silikat konsantrasyonlarının mevsimsel değişimi. Ankara Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 9: 408-414.

Fashchuk, D.Ya. and Shaporenko, S.I. (1995). Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present- day level, annual variability, Water Resources, 22: 250-259.

Fernandes, M.B. (1997). Polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) Distributions in the Seine River and its estuary. Mar. Poll. Bull. 34: 857-867.

Işık, S., Şaşal, M. and Doğan, E. (2006). Investigation on downstream effects of dams in the Sakarya River. J. Fac. Eng. Arch. Gazi Univ. 21: 401-408.

Law, R.J. (1981). Hydrocarbon concentration in water and sediment from UK marine water determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Mar. Poll. Bull. 18: 486-489.

Reshetnikov, V.I. (1984). Discharge of rivers of Turkey in the Black Sea. Meteorolog. Gidrolog. 11: 114 -118.

Jaoshvili, S. (2007). The rivers of the Black Sea, European Environment Agency Technical report no: 71.

Şengörür, B. and İsa, D. (2001). Factor analysis of water quality observations in the Sakarya River. Turk J. Engin. Environ. Sci. 25: 415-425.

UNESCO (1982). Manual and Guides (Manuals for surveillance of Dissolved/ Dispersed oil and petroleum hydrocarbons in sea water and Beaches)

Üstün-Kurnaz, S. and Büyükgüngör, H. (2007). Kızılırmak Deltası kıyı şeridinde su ve midye örneklerinde petrol kirliliği İTÜ Dergisi Su Kirlenmesi Kontrolü, 17: 15-22.

A METHOD FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE REMOVAL IN AIR OF SUBMARINE BY LEWATIT TP 208

A method for hydrogen sulfide removal in air of submarine by Lewatit TP 208

Kasım Cemal Güven, Nazım Çubukçu

Istanbul Aydın University, Inönü Cad., 40, Sefaköy, Istanbul, TURKEY
Göktürk Merkez Mah. Gül Sok. 4, Eyüp, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

In this paper is proposed a method to remove the hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine. This method is based on the absorption of hydrogen sulfide by Lewatit TP 208. Soda lime cartilage is commonly used in submarine for removing of moisture and carbon dioxide in air. In this process soda lime cartilage was combined with Lewatit TP 208. The amount of Lewatit TP 208 required for 710 mair of submarine was 11 kg. The problem for submarine is hydrogen sulfide contents of seawater during in submerged condition. The proposal technique can remove of moisture and hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine. This process is the first record to remove the hydrogen sulfide in air of submarine.

Keywords: Hydrogen sulfide, toxicity, in air, Lewatit TP 208, submarine air

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References

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Cohn, P.D., Cox, M. and Berger, P.S. Health and a esthetic aspects of water quality. In: Water Quality and Treatment (ed. R. Letterman) Technical ed. Fifth edition. Mc Graw- Hill. Inc NewYork, 1999. Chapter 2, p.70.

Danilchenko and Chigirin (1926). Cited by A.E. Kriss In: Marine Microbiology, (Translated by J.M.Shewan and Z. Kabata). Oliver & Boyd. Edinburg 1963, p.258.

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Fisher, U. (1988). Sulfur in Biotechnology. In: Biotechnology (H-J. Rehm. ed.). Vol. 6 b. Chapter 15. Special Microbial Process. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Weinheim, Germany. pp 463-495.

Fukushi, K. and Hiiro, K. (1987). Determination of sulfide in sea water by capillary isotachophoresis. J. Chromatogr. 393: 433-440.

Ichinose, N., Nakomura, K. and Shimizu, C. (1984). Gas chromatographic determination of hydrogen sulphide in anoxic waters. J. Chromatogr. 292: 393- 401.

Klaassen, C.D., Amdur, M.O. and Doull, J. (1986). Casarett and Doull`s Toxicology. MacMillan Publ. Comp. Toronto, London. pp 241-242.

Kriss, A.E. (1963). Marine Microbiology (Translated by J.M.Shewan and Z. Kabata). Oliver and Boyd, Edinburg p. 51.

Metcalf and Eddy (2004). Waste water engineering, Mc Graw-Hill. Boston, pp 1662-1666.

Neretin, L.N. (1996). Contemporary state of hydrogen sulfide zone in the Black Sea. Ph. D. Moscow, cited in ref. (Neretin 2003).

Neretin, L.N. (2003). The Black Sea sulfide inventory, distribution, sources and budget. Workshop. A glance to the Black Sea. The Black Sea Foundation for Education Culture and Protection of Nature, 31 Oct., Istanbul.

Neretin, L.N. and Volkov, I.I. (1995 a). On the vertical distribution of hydrogen sulfide in deep waters of the Black Sea. Okeanologiya 35: 60-65.

Neretin, L.N. and Volkov, I.I. (1995 b). The calculation of hydrogen sulfide production in the Black Sea based on total inorganic carbon content. Doklady Earth Sciences 365 A: 398-401.

Sax, N.I. (1984). Dangerous properties of industrial materials. Van NostrandReinhold, New York. p.1552

Sorokin, Yu, I. (1972). The bacterial population and the process of hydrogen sulfide oxidation in the Black Sea. J. Conseil. Intern. expl. Mer. 34: 423-464.

Sorokin, Yu, I. (1983). The Black Sea In: Ecosystem of the world. Vol. 26. Estuaries and Enclosed Seas. Elsevier, Armsterdam, pp 253-292.

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Volkov, I.I. (1991). Hydrogen sulfide problem in the Black Sea In: Proceeding of the Black Sea Symposium 16-18 September (ed. K.C. Güven) Published by the Black Sea Foundation for Education, Culture and Protection of Nature. Printed in 1994 Istanbul, Turkey. pp 361-362.

Vyazilov, E. and Mikhailov, N. (1999). History of expeditionary studies and information resources for the Black Sea and Mediterranean Seas. Inter. Conference Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea, 23- 26 Feb. Athene, Greece, pp 118-199.

MARINE PROTECTED AREAS IN THE HIGH SEAS OF THE AEGEAN AND EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SEAS, SOME PROPOSALS

Marine protected areas in the high seas of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas, some proposals

Bayram Öztürk

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

Marine living resources are diminishing in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Sea and marine biological diversity is facing various threats such as overfishing, ship originated pollution, exotic species and by-catch. Designation of High Sea Marine Protected Areas [HSMPA] is believed will improve protection of the marine biodiversity in the Eastern Mediterranean including the Aegean Sea. Concerted action and international cooperation is needed for the joint management effort in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Designation of HSMPA in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas will be examined. Five HSMPA in the Aegean Sea and three in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are proposed following the criteria in the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), which include uniqueness, life history stages of species, importance for threatened, endangered species and or habitats, vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity or slow recovery and biological productivity.

Keywords: Aegean Sea, high seas, marine protected areas, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey

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References

Acer, Y. (2006). A proposal for a joint maritime development regime in the Aegean Sea. J. Maritime law and Commerce. Vol.37. No.1.

Benli, H. A., Cihangir, B., Bizsel, K.C. (1999). Investigations on the some demersal fishery resources in the Aegean Sea. Journal of Aquatic products. Special Isssue. Istanbul University pp. 301.369.Istanbul.

Kara, Ö. F., Erdem, M., Aktaş, M. (2000). Density distribution of exploited demersal fish biomass in the continental shelf and off shore of the Aegean Sea, 81 Proceedings of the international symposium Aegean Sea 2000. Bodrum Turkey. pp 8-30.Turkish Marine Research Foundation special publication. Istanbul.

Karakulak, S., Oray, I., Corriero, A., Defliori, M., Santamaria, N., Desantis, S., Demetrio, G. (2004). Evidence of a spawning area for the Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus thuynnus L.) in the eastern Mediterranean. J. App. Ichthyol. 318- 320. Blackweel. Berlin.

Keskin, Ç., Karakulak, S. (2004). Preliminary results on depth distribution of cartilaginous fish in the north Aegean Sea and their fishing potential in summer 2001.

Başusta, N., Keskin, Ç., Serena, F., Seret, B. (eds) p.69-78. The proceedings of the workshop on Mediterranean Cartilaginous fish with emphasis on Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. Turkish Marine Research Foundation. Publication number 23. Istanbul.

Kisseleva, M. (1983). Comparative characteristics of the Benthos at some banks in the Aegean Sea. Thalassographics. 6: 107-118. Athens.

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Oral, N. (2009). Non-Ratification of the 1982 LOS Convention: An Aegean Dilemma of Environment and Global Consequences. Publicist, Journal of International Low. Berkeley, p. 14.

Öztürk, B. (1998). Monitoring of the Mediterranean Monk Seals in the Turkish coasts of the Aegean Sea. Rapp.Comm.int.Mer.Medit. 35.

Öztürk, B. (2004). Marine Protected areas and practices in Turkey. 4th International Symposium of the Pan-European Ecological Network. Environmental encounters, No. 56 .Council of Europe. Strasbourg. p 149-152.

Öztürk, B., Altuğ, G., Çardak, M., Çiftçi, S.P. (2007). Oil pollution in the surface water of the Turkish side of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas. J. Black and Mediterranean Environment. 13: 207-214.

Öztürk, B., Başeren, S.H. (2008). The Excusive Economic Zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and Fisheries. J.Black and Med.Environment.Vol.14.Number 2. Istanbul.

Öztürk, B., Karakulak, S., Çıra, E. (2002). The place of the living resources in the Aegean Sea conflict. in: Gündüz, A., Öztürk, H. (eds). Ege Kıta sahanlığı ve İlişkili sorunlar sempozyumu. 14-15Dec.2002. Istanbul. Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TÜDAV), 12: 118-138.

Öztürk, B., Öztürk, A.A., Dede, A. (2001). Dolphin by-catch in the Swordfish driftnet fishery in the Aegean Sea. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit. 36:208.

Öztürk, B., Topaloglu, B., Topçu, E. (2009). Results of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Cruises between 2006 to 2009. In press.

Öztürk,B., Dede,A., Tonay,A., Öztürk, A.A. (2009). Cetacean sightings in the Aegean Sea in summer 2007 and 2008. 23rd Annual conference of the European Cetacean Society. Istanbul. Abstact book.

Rosel, P.E., Frantzis, A., Lockyer, C., Komnenou, A. (2003). Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises. Marine Ecology Progress Series 247: 275-261.

Scovazzi, T. (2002). The protection of the Marine environment in the Mediterranean: Ideas behind the updating of the Barcelona system. The Mediterranean and the law of the Sea at the Dawn of the 21st.Century. pp: 269- 273. Bruylant. Bruxelles.

Tudela, S. (2003). Tuna farming in the Mediterranean : The coup de Grace to a dwinding population. in workshop on farming, management and Conservation Bluefin Tuna. TUDAV Publ. 13: 53-66. Istanbul. Turkey.

Ulutürk, T. (1987). Fish fauna, Back-ground radioactivity of the Gökçeada marine environment. Journal of aquatic products. Istanbul University. 1: 95-119. Istanbul.

www.gfcm.org

www.iucn.org

www.oceans.greenpeace.org

www.rac.spa.org

www.rac.spa.org

Zaitsev, Y., Öztürk, B. (2001). Exotic species in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Turkish Marine Research Foundation. Publication number 8. Istanbul.

 

 

 

HEAVY METALS IN LIVERS, GILLS AND MUSCLE OF DICENTRARCHUS LABRAX (LINNAEUS, 1758) FISH SPECIES GROWN IN THE DARDANELLES

Heavy metals in livers, gills and muscle of Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) fish species grown in the Dardanelles

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu, Derya Güray, Adem Tekinay

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
18 Mart University, Faculty of Fisheries, 17100, Çanakkale, TURKEY

Abstract

Heavy metals accumulation assessment was carried out in the livers, gills and muscle tissues of the Sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) fish species grown in an experimental fish farm in the Dardanelles. The concentrations of the metals in muscle are (mg kg-1, dry wt) Al 37±28; Cd 0.19±0.22; Cr 3.5±1.7; Cu 3.0±0.5; Fe 41±0.5; Hg 0.027±0.007; Pb 20±15; Zn <0.01 and Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg and Fe were found in the order of liver>gill>muscle while the Pb and Zn levels follows the sequence gill>liver>muscle. These Pb and Cd levels are near the permissible limits for human consumption.

Keywords: Trace metals, fish, livers, gills, Dardanelles

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References

Abreu, S.N., Pereira, E, Vale, C. and Duarte, A.C. (2000). Accumulation of mercury in Seabass from a contaminated lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal). Mar. Poll. Bull. 40: 193-7.

Catsiki, V.A., Strogyloudi, E. (1999). Survey of metal levels in common fish species from Greek waters. Sci. Total. Environ. 237-238: 387-400.

Dugo, G., Pera, L.L., Bruzesse, A., Pellicano, T.M. and Turco, V.L. (2006). Concentration of Cd (Il), Cu (Il), Pb(ll), Se(IV), and Zn(ll) in cultured Seabass (D. labrax) tissues from Tyrrhenian sea and Sicilian sea by derivative stripping potentiometry. Food Control 17: 146-152.

FAO/WHO. (2004). Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants. WHO Technical Report Series. No. 922.

Farkas, A., Salanki, J., and Varanka, I. (2000). Heavy metal concentrations in fish of Lake Balaton. Lakes and Reservoirs. Res. Management 5: 271-9.

Galindo, L., Hardisson, A. and Montelongo, F.G. (1986). Correlation between lead, cadmium, copper, zinc and iron concentrations in tuna fish. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 36: 595-9.

Hutton, M. (1987). Human health concerns of lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic. In E. C. Hutchinson, & K. M. Meema (Eds.), Lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic in the environment, SCOPE 31. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

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Saglık, S., Alparslan, M., Gezgin, T., Çetintürk, K., Tekinay, A; and Güven, K.C. (2003). Fatty acid composition of wild and cultivated gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 105: 104-107.

Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, JL., Corbella, J., and Bosque, M.A. (1992) Heavy metals in marine species from the Terragona coast, Spain. J. Environ. Sci. Health A. 27: 1939-48.

Topçuoglu, S:, Kırbaşoglu, Ç., and Güngör, N. (2002). Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from Turkish coast of the Black Sea, 1997-1998. Environ. Int. 27: 521-6.

HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN SEA WATER AND SEDIMENTS OF ZONGULDAK, TURKEY

Heavy metal levels in sea water and sediments of Zonguldak, Turkey

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

Heavy metal levels were measured in seawater and sediment in Zonguldak which is on the Black sea shore of Turkey. The samples were collected near the industrial areas and city beaches. Maximum concentrations of metals dissolved in seawater were found (nM) Cd 15.0±0.98 around Çatalağzı Power Station, Cr 112±8.6 in Alaplı Creek delta, Mn 715±8.3 in Filyos creek delta, Cu 122±1.5, Ni 142±10.6, Pb 39±9.0 and Zn 834±4.1in Zonguldak city beaches. Heavy metal levels in sediment were found as (μg/g) Cd 0.47±0.34, Cr 67.95±27.6, Cu 30.21±9.27, Mn 274.4±74.8, Ni 37.03±13.25, Pb 39.14±11.22, and Zn 84.6±18.5. Heavy metal concentrations were compared with the US EPA limitations and the other localities and seawater found to be highly polluted than the other Black Sea shores and similar to Rize and Hopa waters. According to recommendations of US EPA under the priority toxic pollutants list Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn levels are above the limits in Zonguldak seawater. Metal levels in sediment samples were found as polluted as the estuarine areas of other countries in the region.

Keywords: Heavy metal, sea water, sediment, Black Sea

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