AN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF SHIP LENGTH FACTOR IN THE STRAIT OF ISTANBUL

An analytic hierarchy process approach to the analysis of ship length factor in the Strait of Istanbul

Tuba Keçeci, Cemil Yurtören

Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Maritime, Tuzla 34940, TURKEY

Abstract

The Strait of Istanbul is an ‘S’-shaped narrow channel of difficult nature with heavy, complex and irregular currents, and sharp turns. Due to these characteristics, the Strait is considered to be one of the most critical waterways in the world. The density of maritime traffic has increased from an annual count of 4500 ships in 1936, when the Montreux Convention was signed to regulate navigation in the Straits, to a current average of 54,000 vessels per year. This increase in traffic density has led to the rise in the number of maritime casualties. In order to cope with this problem, Maritime Traffic Regulations in the Turkish Straits were established in 1994 and revised in 1998. In these regulations, the concept of a large vessel came to the fore and is defined in the definitions and abbreviations: Article 2. When considering the increase in length of vessels passing through the Strait of Istanbul, the question, ‘What is a large vessel?’ becomes important. This paper investigates what a large vessel is in terms of its length factor in the Strait of Istanbul. In this study, experts from VTS, pilot captains of the Strait of Istanbul and experienced captains are consulted.The AHP method is utilized to identify the quantitative importance of each efficient and some future works are suggested as a result of the findings.

Keywords: Maritime traffic management criteria, decision making, AHP method, the Strait of Istanbul

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FIRST RECORD BELLOTTIA APODA GIGLIOLI, 1883 (BYTHITIDAE), FROM THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF TURKEY

First record Bellottia apoda Giglioli, 1883 (Bythitidae), from the Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

Deniz Ergüden, Cemal Turan, Deniz Yağlıoğlu, Mevlüt Gürlek

Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries, Mustafa Kemal University, 31220 Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY

Abstract

One specimen of Bellottia apoda Giglioli, 1883 was caught by a bottom commercial trawler at a depth of 155 m on 28 October 2009. This is the first record of B. apoda in Turkish waters of Eastern Mediterranean. Morphometric and meristic characters of B. apoda caught are described.

KeywordsBellottia apoda, Bythitidae, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, first record

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A REVIEW OF FISH FAUNA IN THE TURKISH BLACK SEA

A review of fish fauna in the Turkish Black Sea

Çetin Keskin

Istanbul University, Fisheries Faculty, Ordu St. No: 200, 34470 Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

This review showed that a total of 161 fish species inhabit in the Turkish Black Sea according to previous studies. Atlanto-Mediterranean species consisted 62.73% of total fish fauna, 6.83% cosmopolitan, 28.57% endemics and 1.86% introduced species such as, Liza haematocheilaSphraena obtusata and Salmo salar. For the protection of the fish diversity in the Black Sea needs to establish marine protected areas, get under control of illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries, regional cooperation and concerted action.

Keywords: Marine fishes, Black Sea, Turkey

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A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER AND AIR QUALITY PARAMETERS IN AND AROUND THE LAKE YENIÇAĞA COAST

A preliminary assessment of the water and air quality parameters in and around the Lake Yeniçağa coast

Mesut Doğan, Bayram Kızılkaya

Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Geography, İstanbul, TURKEY
Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Science and Technology Application and Research Center-Central Laboratory, Çanakkale, TURKEY

Abstract

The Lake Yeniçağa is located in the interiors of Western Black Sea, within the borders of the city Bolu and in the north of the town Yeniçağa. It is just in the middle of the Çağa Depression 285 km away from Istanbul and 153 km from Ankara. The Çağa Creek with its 8 branches (Hamzabey, Güzviran, Kaymaz, Ömerli, Kirenli, Fındıklı, Aksu and Kayışlar) flows into the lake. Of these branches, Kaymaz, Ömerli, Kirenli and Fındıklı drift the pollutants from TEM highway, Güzviran the ones from D-100 highway and in addition Hamzabey and Aksu drift agricultural wastes into the lake. This study provides prelimary results obtained from water and lichen samples collected from the Lake Yeniçağa and its surroundings, located in the interiors of Western Black Sea, within the borders of the city Bolu. We aimed to highlight some indicators of pollution parameters, including the quality of water and air in and around the lake, on the basis of ICP-AES and ion chromatography (IC) analysis as well as several measurements results. The results obtained showed an increase in Cl– and NH4 levels. In particular, Cl, NO3-3 and SO4-2 in the sample taken from the south of the lake littoral are at two or three times higher amounts. Moreover, some concentration of NO2– and NH4was detected, which was not identified in the other samples. As a result of analyses of two different lichens (Xanthoria parietina and Diploschistes scruposus) carried out to investigate the effect of traffic load on the air quality around the lake, it was observed that the amounts of Fe and Al markedly increased, suggesting a negative effect of traffic-related particles on the area.

Keywords: Air and water pollution, land use, ICP-AES, ion chromatography, Lake Yeniçağa, Bolu

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GROUNDWATER PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BREDEAH AREA PLAIN (ORAN AREA – NORTHWEST ALGERIA)

Groundwater physico-chemical characteristics of Bredeah area Plain (Oran area – Northwest Algeria)

Lamiae Yebdri, Fatiha Hadji, Lahcen Benaabidate, Benamar Dahmani

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, P.O. Box: 119, Tlemcen, ALGERIA
Laboratory of Georesources and Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of Fez, P.O.Box: 2202, Fez – 30000, MOROCCO
Laboratory of Spectrochemistry and Structural Pharmacology, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, P.O. Box : 119, Tlemcen, ALGERIA

Abstract

A varied methodology on the field and laboratory was used for determining the physical and chemical characteristics of groundwater in Bredeah plain. The salinity values are high in the Quaternary aquifer, more than 7g/l whereas conductivity’s reach 14440 μS/cm. Chloride ions contribute significantly to anionic composition and increase up to 2392 mg/l. Conductivity and hardness values and some ions concentrations including chlorides, sulfates and nitrates exceed the WHO standards of drinking water. In Bredeah area, water is generally is of poor quality. For drinking water supply of Oran city, this water is demineralized by the reverse osmosis (RO) process.

Keywords: Miocene limestone, Quaternary alluvia, salinity, demineralization

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AN ALIEN JELLYFISH RHOPILEMA NOMADICA AND ITS IMPACTS TO THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN PART OF TURKEY

An alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and its impacts to the Eastern Mediterranean part of Turkey

Bayram Öztürk, Melek İşinibilir

Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

An alien scyphomedusa Rhopilema nomadica human health, tourism and fisheries Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The painful stings of jellyfish may pose a danger to holiday makers. A monitoring programme is recommended for the impacts on tourism, human health and fisheries to mitigate of the effect of this jellyfish.

KeywordsRhopilema nomadica, Mediterranean coast of Turkey, invasive species

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PHENOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON POSIDONIA OCEANICA (L.) DELILE MEDOWS ALONG THE COAST OF AKKUM (SIGACIK BAY, AEGEAN SEA, TURKEY)

Phenological observations on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile medows along the coast of Akkum (Sıgacık Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey)

Berrin Dural

Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Bornova, TURKEY

Abstract

Phenological observations were carried out on Posidonia oceanica meadows between December 1994 and April 1995 along the coast of Akkum (Sıgacık Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey) from two shallow depths (1-3 m; 4-7 m). The highest flowering density of 136 inflorescence / m2 was observed in the 4-7 m depth during January 1995. Inflorescences more often occured on the orthotropic rhizomes in the dense beds. Inflorescence mostly bore 2 rarely 1 or 3 spikes, distichous with 2-3 flowers with a male flower and a sterile extension at the apex. Fruits started maturing in February and got mature during April. Plants at the 4-7 m depth produced 15 mature fruits from a total of 19 flowers in seven inflorescences. Shoot density was found to be maximum (880 shoots / m2) during December, with 7420 leaves / m2), at the 4-7 m depth. The leaf lengths of the plants at the 4-7 m depth gradually increased from December to April. Phenological differences between the two depths were mainly due to the fact that the plants in the sparse and isolated meadows in the shallower areas had short and even falciform leaves, compared to the ones in the deeper and central areas.

Keywords: Seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, phenology, the Aegean Sea, Turkey

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ALIEN FISH SPECIES IN THE MEDITERRANEAN – BLACK SEA BASIN

Alien fish species in the Mediterranean – Black Sea Basin

Muammer Oral

Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Marine Biology Department. Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

Alien Fish (Synonyms: non-native, non-indigenous, allochthonous, and exotic) species have been introduced to the Mediterranean-Black Sea Basin via the Suez Canal, Gibraltar or in ballast water. The number of alien fish species increased recently in the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin because of the opening of the Suez Canal, climate change and international shipping activities. The aim of this review is to compile all relevant data for the alien fish species in both the Black and the Mediterranean Seas. As a result a total of 160 alien fish species have been reported from the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin. There are 67 species introduced from the Atlantic Ocean via the Gibraltar, three species of which are originated from the Boreal Atlantic, 86 species introduced from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal, four species of which are originated from the Pacific Ocean. The number of alien fish species increased 68.42 % between years 2002-2010. Some alien fishes mostly in the eastern Mediterranean were well colonized, recently, such as Indo-Pacific species Atherinomorus forskaliiFistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus and Etrumeus teres in the western Mediterranean. Regionally, there are 40 species of the Aegean Sea, three species from the Marmara Sea, five species from the Black Sea, 96 species from the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 26 species from the Ionian Sea, 36 species from the Tyrrhenian Sea, 14 species from the Algerian coasts, 43 species from the Alboran Sea, 21 species from the Adriatic Sea, six species from the Ligurian Sea, 10 species from the Gulf of Lion and 10 species from the Tunisian coasts were reported in total of 160 alien fish species.

Keywords: Mediterranean, Aegean, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, alien fish species

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WATER RESOURCES AND ITS QUALITY IN ARID AND SEMI ARID AREAS: THE CASE OF THE NW OF ALGERIA

Water resources and its quality in arid and semi arid areas: the case of the NW of Algeria

F. Hadji, A. Marok, A. Belmouhoub, L. Benaabidate, B. Dahmani, K. M. Taleb

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, P.O. Box: 119, Tlemcen, ALGERIA
Laboratory of Georesources and Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of Fez, P.O. Box: 2202, 30000, MOROCCO
Laboratory of spectrochemistry and structural pharmacology. Faculty of Engineering Sciences, P.O. Box: 119, Tlemcen, ALGERIA

Abstract

Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations were carried out to evaluate the groundwater resources and their quality in the North-west of Algeria. The studied aquifers are Maghnia and Zriga, Ain Sefra and Bechar-Abadla. The water types of these aquifers are dominated by sulphate and chloride. Climatic conditions and geological characteristics seem affecting the physico-chemical properties of ground waters. The concentrations of water in dissolved elements are controlled especially by evaporation and weathering of evaporitic and saline formations, the majority values of conductivity and hardness are higher than WHO drinking standards, as well as concentrations in certain ions as Na+, Cl– and SO4 2- .

Keywords: Algeria, water resources, aridity, evaporitic formation, drinking water

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SOME AIR AND WATER POLLUTION INDICATORS IN AND AROUND THE LAKE ABANT, TURKEY

Some air and water pollution indicators in and around the Lake Abant, Turkey

Mesut Doğan, Bayram Kızılkaya

Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Geography, Istanbul, TURKEY
Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Science and Technology Application and Research Center-Central Laboratory, Çanakkale, TURKEY

Abstract

In this paper was discussed some implications of landuse induced pollution around Lake Abant, Turkey, on the 00000 basis of field observations and some analytical data. The extent of air and water pollution was considered using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography analyses. The ICP-AES results obtained from lichen Xanthoria parietina implied the existence of heavy metal accumulation (Fe>Al>Mn>Ba>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cr>B>Co>Cd), caused possibly by traffic load in the study area. Lake waters seem to reach to a considerable extent. Howbeit, air and water pollution form a potential risk for the lake environment in case human load by recreation and tourism activities continue. Thus, pollution-prevention precautions should be taken for sustainable use of the lake.

Keywords: Pollution, landuse, heavy metal concentration, ICP-AES, ion chromatography, Lake Abant (Turkey)

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