Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment

Sayhan Topcuoğlu, Önder Kılıç, Murat Belivermiş, Halim Aytekin Ergül, Gülşah Kalaycı

Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul, TURKEY
Kocaeli University Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Biology, Izmit, TURKEY


The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

Key words: Heavy metals, marine algae, Turkish marine environment

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Topcuoğlu, S., Güven, K.C., Kırbaşoğlu, Ç., Güngör, N., Ünlü, S. and Yılmaz, Y.Z. (2001). Heavy metal in marine algae from Şile in the Black Sea, 1994-1997. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 67: 288-294.

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Clastogenic studies on Tandaha Dam water in Asser

Kamel Ahmad, Jaber Saleh

King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Dept. of Biology, Abha, zip code 61413 P.O. Box 9004, SAUDI ARABIA


Clastogenic effects of home wastes and agricultural contaminates of Tandaha dam located at Alahad municipality in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia were investigated in peripheral erythrocytes of Rana ridibunda. Examination of blood smears showed that the formation of micronuclei significantly increased during one year (f=9.89, df=3) with p value < 0.05 and were more abundant compared to the control group. This increase in the formation of micronucleus indicates that agricultural pollution increases the risk of clastogenic effects on peripheral erythrocytes of Rana ridibunda and may has similar effects on the human population located around the dam.

Keywords: Clastogenic effects, Rana ridibunda, environmental genotoxicity, micronucleus test, Tandaha dam, peripheral erythrocytes.

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Environmental impact assessment of lesser-known creek in Benghazi

Joel Prashant Jack, Ibrahim Al-Ghaweel, Ayman A. Naas

Department of Environment, Faculty of Public Health, Post Box: 18251 Al- Arab Medical University, Benghazi, LIBYA


Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for lesser- known creek in Benghazi was taken for initial monitoring to add data base system by taking environmental factors and water variables into consideration in order to evaluate, protect and sustainable use of lesser known creek within the city. Temperature had played a dominant role in assessing the importance of physical factors in setting the vertical limits of zonation pattern in coastal communities. However, the daily warming of creek waters, in addition to that the pollutants present in the creek, with the help of solar radiation, produce warm mixed layer of water during the course of the day. This development of this mixed layer largely depend on wind and surface currents in turn will play a key role for the productivity and also the growth of both phytoplankton and zooplankton in certain areas in the creek. Whereas, continuous addition of pollutants all along the creek especially near fish market lead to decline of water quality and increase of organic matter. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH will determine water quality and the redistribution of flora and fauna in the creek.

Keywords: Environment impact assessment (EIA), creek, water quality

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Anionic detergent LAS pollution and discharged amount from Turkish coasts to the Black Sea during 2004-2007

Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Cem Gazioğlu, Burak Çoban

Turkish Research Marine Foundation (TUDAV), Beykoz, 10, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Science and Management, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak, TURKEY


In this work LAS pollution was investigated at 82 stations of Turkish Black Sea coast and discharged LAS amount given to the Black Sea from undercurrent (Mediterranean Sea water) of Bosphorus and rivers of Turkey flow to the Black Sea during 2004-2007. The maximum LAS levels were measured during the years in the examined area are (μg/l): in 2006 as 82.91, at st.4 (Terkos, west part 1), 136.56 at st.13A (Zonguldak, west part 2) and 86.88 at st.47 (Giresun, east part) and in 2007 as 398.78 at st.13A (Zonguldak). Among the Turkish cities located in the Black Sea coast, the highest level LAS has been found in Zonguldak harbour (st.37A) in 2005, 2006 and 2007. LAS level in the east part (Sinop-Hopa) was found generally lower than west part (Şile-Ayancık) of Turkish coast of the Black Sea. The maximum level was found (μg/l) in the cities Giresun (st.47), 86.88, Ordu (st.44) 68.43, Samsun (st.35) 69.49, Hopa (st.62) 71.56 in 2006. LAS level was found not uniform in investigated area of the Black Sea. Its distribution strongly affected by sea current. There are two currents in the Turkish straits; Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Upper current carries the Black Sea water directed to the Sea of Marmara then the Aegean Sea/Mediterranean Sea. The sewage of Istanbul city is dumped from various plants into undercurrent of Mediterranean Sea flow to the Black Sea via Bosphorus. The quantity of undercurrent water is an average 193 kmper year. The maximum amount of LAS found in undercurrent Bosphorus was (μg/l): 63.56 in 2004, 36.5 in 2005, 118.77 in 2006 and 101.92 in 2007. Discharged LAS amount was estimated to the Black Sea from the undercurrent of Bosphorus as: 12352 t/y in 2004, 7044 t/y in 2005, 22774 t/y in 2006 and 19686 t/y in 2007. From the Turkish rivers as: Sakarya 225 t/y, Bartın 148 t/y, Kızılırmak 122 t/y and Yeşilırmak 168 t/y. Total LAS amount was estimated to be 20349 t/y from Turkish part to the Black Sea in 2007. When the pollution level between the monitoring years is compared and the year 2006 (except as st.13 in 2007) is found highest in all examined stations. In this investigation, the loss of LAS was also studied during sampling and analysis date and found that the loss reached after 5 days of sampling up to 60% and after 10 days 80%. These findings showed that the determination of LAS must be done immediately just after the sampling. This study is a first record for the detergent pollution in Turkish Black Sea coast and LAS amount given from Turkey to the Black Sea.

Keywords: LAS level, Turkish Black Sea coast, undercurrent of Bosphorus and rivers.

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Contributions to the knowledge of algal flora of Homa Lagoon (Aegean Sea, Turkey)

Fatma Çolak Sabancı

Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Hydrobiology, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir, TURKEY


In this study, the benthic diatoms of Homa lagoon were determined between June 2006 and September 2007. Samples were collected from four selected sampling sites. The major confusion in genus Nitzschia identification is largely caused by the lack of comprehensive descriptions of nomenclatural types and undescribed variability of diagnostic features. Therefore it’s important to describe the species in sufficient detail to permit correct species recognition. For this purpose, structural details of observed in nine species of genus Nitzschia were examined. Nitzschia compressa var. balatonis (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot, Nitzschia rectirobusta Lange-Bertalot, Nitzschia vidovichii Grunow were reported for the first time from the Turkish coastal waters. Original photographs, morphological features and some information on their distribution patterns and the substratum they inhabit were also provided.

Keywords: Nitzschia, benthic diatom, morphometric data, Aegean Sea

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Distribution of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the Istanbul Strait

Mine Çardak, Gülşen Altuğ

Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Marine Biology Canakkale, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Marine Biology Istanbul, TURKEY


The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of the Enterobacteriaceae members present in the sea water samples obtained from the stations selected at the Marmara Sea entry and the Black Sea exit of the Istanbul Strait and the effect of the physical parameters on the distribution of these indicator bacteria. A total of 126 unit isolates of the members of the Enterobacteriaceae were identified using API 20E (Biomereux) in the sea water samples obtained from the surface waters (0-30 cm) and various depths by monthly samplings from February 2006 to March 2007. Faecal and total coliform analyses were performed in order to state the bacterial pollution load using membrane filtration technique. Temperature, salinity, conductivity, pH and dissolved oxygen were measured by a CTD (SBE-15). The results of this study demonstrated that the highest bacterial abundance and pollution were present at the Marmara Sea entry of the Istanbul Strait, the number of bacteria determined below the depth of 20 m were higher than the deep discharge standards, and the deep discharge at the Marmara Sea entry of the Istanbul Strait was not attaining its purpose due to the lower layer waters were returning to the Marmara Sea instead of merging in the Black Sea, as pointed out by the bacterial levels.

Keywords: Enterobacterieaceae, Istanbul Strait, total coliform, faecal coliform

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APHA (1999). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (20th ed.). Washington, DC: APHA.

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Monitoring of radionuclide concentrations in marine algae, mussel and sediment samples from the Turkish marine environment during the period of 2001-2009

Sayhan Topçuoğlu, Halim Aytekin Ergül, Murat Belivermiş, Önder Kılıç

Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Radiobiology Section of Biology Department, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul, TURKEY
Kocaeli University, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Biology, Izmit, TURKEY


The anthropogenic and natural radionuclide concentrations were reviewed in marine algae, mussel and sediment samples were collected from Turkish marine environment in 2001 to 2009. The results showed that, the concentration of 137Cs activity gradually decreased in tested all the samples than previous results. On the other hand, the natural radionuclide concentrations are slight increased during this time.

Keywords: Radionuclide, biota, sediment, Turkish marine environment

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Ergül, H.A., Topcuoglu, S., Ölmez, E. and Kırbaşoğlu, Ç. (2006). Radionuclides in a sediment trap and bottom sediment samples from the eastern Turkish coast  if the Black Sea. J.Rad.Nucl. Chem. 268: 133-136.

Kiliç, Ö., Belivermiş, M. , Topcuoglu, S., Çotuk, Y., Ugur, A. and Özdeni, B. (2010). Radioactivity concentrations in the surface sediment and mussel samples from Bosphorus and Golden Horn, Turkey Rapp. Comm. Int Mer Médit. 39: 239.

Thébault, H., Rodriguez, A.M., Baena, M.R., Andral, B., Barisc, D, Albaladeo, J.B., Bologa, A.s., Boudjenoun, R., Defaltini, R., Egorov, v.N., Khoukhi, T.EI., Florou, H., Kiniewald, G. , Noureddine, A., Patrascu, V., Pham, M.K., Scarpato,  A., Stokozov, N.A., Topcuoglu, S. and Warnau, M. (2008). 137Cs baseline levels in the Mediterranean and Black Sea: A cross-basin survey of the CIESM Mediterranean Mussel Watch programme. Marine Pollution Bulletin 57: 801806.

Topcuoglu, S. (2000). Black Sea Ecology, Pollution Research in Turkey of the Marine Environment. IAEA Bulletin 42: 12-14.

Topcuoglu, S., Kut, D. , Esen, N. , Güngör, N., Eğilli, E. and Kırbaşoglu, Ç. (2001.) 137Cs in biota and sediment samples from Turkish coast of the Black. J. Radioanal Nucl. Chem. 250: 381-384.

Topcuoglu, S., Ergül, H.A., Baysal, A. , Ölmez, E. and Kut, D. (2003). Determination of radionuclides and heavy metal concentrations in biota and sediment samples from Pazar and Rize stations in the eastern Black Sea. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 12: 695-699.

Topcuoglu, S., Ölmez, E., Kırbaşoğlu, Ç., Yılmaz, Y.Z. and Saygın,N. (2004).Heavy metal and radioactivity in biota and sediment samples collected from Ünye in the eastern Black Sea. Rapp. Comm. int.Mer Médit. 37: 250.

Topcuoglu, S. (2005). Monitoring of radionuclide concentrations in marine algae from the Turkish Black Sea Coast and Bosphorus during the period of 1984-2001. J.BIack Sea/Mediterranean Environment 1 1: 195-204.


Oil pollution level in sea water and sediments of Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) and Golden Horn during 2004-2007

Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Burak Çoban

Turkish Research Marine Foundation (TUDAV), Beykoz, 10, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Science and Management, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak, TURKEY


In this paper oil pollution levels were determined in sea water and sediments of Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, and Dardanelles) and additionally Golden Horn during 2004-2007. Oil concentrations were varied in examined area. The highest oil levels found in sea water were: in 2004 in Bosphorus B7 at 10 m depth 1512.73 μg/l, in 2005 at K0 therm., 3173.67 μg/l, in 2006 at KK 1307.55 μg/l and in 2007 at B13 therm., 1243.61μg/l. The highest oil amount found in sediments were: in 2004 in Sea of Marmara at MKC 1238.40 μg/g, in 2005 at MK 2763.76 μg/g, in 2006 at MK 1859.10 μg/g. The cause of high pollution levels is: for Bosphorus heavy ship traffic, for Sea of Marmara illegal discharge of ballast water from tankers came to Izmit refinery and sewage of urban/industrial water and for Golden Horn heavy boats traffic. It was observed in some stations a relationship on pollution levels between sea water and sediment.

Keywords: Bosphorus, Golden Horn, Sea of Marmara, Dardenelles, oil pollution

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Preliminary observations on the Samsun Bay splash zone biodiversity

Yuvenaly Zaitsev, Nadezhda Kopytina, Olga Garkusha, Irina Serbinova

Odessa Branch, Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 37, Pushkinska Street, 65125 Odessa, UKRAINE


Taking into consideration the unique indicatory significance of the marine splash zone where the inhabitants of the neustal, water column and bottom are present, and continuing the investigations of the phenomenon of littoral concentration of life, samples of sand, mollusk shells and pieces of drifting wood and reed were selected. Parallel samples in the geographically opposite Odessa Gulf area were taken. During laboratory investigations living unicellular algae and fungi have been detected. There were: in Samsun samples – 21 algal species and in Odessa samples – 5 species, and correspondingly 10 and 8 fungal species. All species of fungi from the Samsun Bay were obligate marine and in the Odessa Gulf 8 species were obligate marine and 4 species – of terrigenous origin. Possible reasons of these differences are discussed. Preliminary conclusion is that the ecological status of the Samsun Bay area in autumn 2009 was more satisfactory than that in the Odessa Gulf area.

Keywords: Samsun Bay, Odessa Gulf, microalgae, fungi

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Vol.16 – 2010 – No.3

Preliminary observations on the Samsun Bay splash zone biodiversity
Yuvenaly Zaitsev, Nadezhda Kopytina, Olga Garkusha, Irina Serbinova

Oil pollution level in sea water and sediments of Turkish Straits (Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) and Golden Horn during 2004-2007
Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Burak Çoban

Monitoring of radionuclide concentrations in marine algae, mussel and sediment samples from the Turkish marine environment during the period of 2001-2009
Sayhan Topçuoğlu, Halim Aytekin Ergül, Murat Belivermiş, Önder Kılıç

Distribution of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in the Istanbul Strait
Mine Çardak, Gülşen Altuğ

Contributions to the knowledge of algal flora of Homa Lagoon (Aegean Sea, Turkey)
Fatma Çolak Sabancı