Anionic detergent LAS pollution and discharged amount from Turkish coasts to the Black Sea during 2004-2007
Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Cem Gazioğlu, Burak Çoban
Turkish Research Marine Foundation (TUDAV), Beykoz, 10, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Science and Management, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak, TURKEY
In this work LAS pollution was investigated at 82 stations of Turkish Black Sea coast and discharged LAS amount given to the Black Sea from undercurrent (Mediterranean Sea water) of Bosphorus and rivers of Turkey flow to the Black Sea during 2004-2007. The maximum LAS levels were measured during the years in the examined area are (μg/l): in 2006 as 82.91, at st.4 (Terkos, west part 1), 136.56 at st.13A (Zonguldak, west part 2) and 86.88 at st.47 (Giresun, east part) and in 2007 as 398.78 at st.13A (Zonguldak). Among the Turkish cities located in the Black Sea coast, the highest level LAS has been found in Zonguldak harbour (st.37A) in 2005, 2006 and 2007. LAS level in the east part (Sinop-Hopa) was found generally lower than west part (Şile-Ayancık) of Turkish coast of the Black Sea. The maximum level was found (μg/l) in the cities Giresun (st.47), 86.88, Ordu (st.44) 68.43, Samsun (st.35) 69.49, Hopa (st.62) 71.56 in 2006. LAS level was found not uniform in investigated area of the Black Sea. Its distribution strongly affected by sea current. There are two currents in the Turkish straits; Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Upper current carries the Black Sea water directed to the Sea of Marmara then the Aegean Sea/Mediterranean Sea. The sewage of Istanbul city is dumped from various plants into undercurrent of Mediterranean Sea flow to the Black Sea via Bosphorus. The quantity of undercurrent water is an average 193 km3 per year. The maximum amount of LAS found in undercurrent Bosphorus was (μg/l): 63.56 in 2004, 36.5 in 2005, 118.77 in 2006 and 101.92 in 2007. Discharged LAS amount was estimated to the Black Sea from the undercurrent of Bosphorus as: 12352 t/y in 2004, 7044 t/y in 2005, 22774 t/y in 2006 and 19686 t/y in 2007. From the Turkish rivers as: Sakarya 225 t/y, Bartın 148 t/y, Kızılırmak 122 t/y and Yeşilırmak 168 t/y. Total LAS amount was estimated to be 20349 t/y from Turkish part to the Black Sea in 2007. When the pollution level between the monitoring years is compared and the year 2006 (except as st.13 in 2007) is found highest in all examined stations. In this investigation, the loss of LAS was also studied during sampling and analysis date and found that the loss reached after 5 days of sampling up to 60% and after 10 days 80%. These findings showed that the determination of LAS must be done immediately just after the sampling. This study is a first record for the detergent pollution in Turkish Black Sea coast and LAS amount given from Turkey to the Black Sea.
Keywords: LAS level, Turkish Black Sea coast, undercurrent of Bosphorus and rivers.