Marine and coastal birds of the Istanbul Strait

Asaf Ertan

Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY


The Istanbul Strait is an important bird area where 61 bird species can be observed during the year. In this study, 40 marine and coastal birds easily observed and identified in the Istanbul Strait are presented.

Keywords: Istanbul Strait, sea birds, bird migration.

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Assessing the vulnerability to pollution in the aquifer’s Charf El Akab (Tangier, Morocco)

Laila Achagra, Jamal Stitou El Messari, Mohamed Draoui

Faculty of Science, University of Abdelmalek Essaadi, BP 2121 Tetouan, MOROCCO


The application of the DRASTIC’s method on Charf El Akab’s aquifer situated in the northwest of Morocco, precisely in the coastal plain between Tangiers and Asila, was made in this study. The mapping of the index DRASTIC allows us to delineate zones with various degrees of pollution vulnerability. The obtained results show that: i) the high˗vulnerability zones extend over the entire free part of the lower ground˗water (in the South of the aquifer), and ii) These zones lack natural protection of the ground˗water. Precisely, the pollution vulnerability becomes very high in the southeast part of the studied sector, mostly in the quarry areas where the exploited biosandstones play the reloading role with respect to the lower ground˗water. The zone with moderate vulnerability extends over the north part, where the ground˗water is covered by the upper, and the middle, fine˗grained to marly lithological formations. In the same zone, the vulnerability becomes low at the level of wetlands. As a conclusion, it is important to carry out strict control and follow˗up of the ground˗water to optimize its role as a strategic reserve in the Tangier’s region.

Keywords: DRASTIC model, groundwater, vulnerability mapping

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Achagra, L., Sarroukh, M., Benjbara, M., Stitou El Messari, J., Ceron., J. C. (1998) Relación estadisticas entre las propriedades hidodinámicas y geoelectricas del acuífero de Charaf El Akab (Marruecos). Geogaceta 25: 3˗6.

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Draoui M., Vias, J., Andreo, B., Targuisti, K., Stitou El Messari, J. E. (2008) A comparative study of four vulnerability mapping methods in detritic aquifers under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Environmental Geology 54: 455˗463.

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Médioni, R., Wernli, R. (1978) Etude géologique du bassin post˗nappe de Charf El Akab (Province Tanger, Maroc). Notes Serv. Géol. Maroc. 40 (275): 107˗133.



Some remarks of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing in Turkish part of the Black Sea

Bayram Öztürk

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P. O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY


Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is one of the serious threat for the sustainable fishing in the Black Sea. Due to IUU fishing, ghost fishing, by˗catch, destruction of the benthic ecosystem has been reported. From 1992 to 2012, a total of 65 Illegal fishing cases have been reported in various Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) in the Black Sea. Among these cases, 5 fishermen lost their lives and 2 were wounded in the EEZ. This excessive use of force should be stopped for fishermen and peaceful pursuit should be followed in case of confrontation or in case of arrest. Main illegal target fish is turbot and enforcement of the existing fisheries regulations and laws is necessary for Turkey to halt IUU fishing. Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) system should be developed to reduce illegal fishing practices all Turkish part of the Black Sea. Illegal clam and Rapana dredging is also threat for benthic ecosystem. Anchovy is the largest stocks of small pelagic fish in the Black Sea and contribute the major part of fisheries production in the region, especially Turkey. Its unreported fishing, thus, should be taken into special consideration. Even though IUU fishing in the Turkish part of the Black Sea shows decreasing trend in recent years, concerted actions and international cooperation are essential. Zero tolerance should be the main concept against IUU fishing in the Turkish part of the Black Sea.

Keywords: Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing, Black Sea, turbot

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Acara, A. (1985) The Black Sea Turbot. State Planning Organization, Ankara, Turkey. 21 p. (in Turkish).

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Samsun, N. and Kalaycı, F. (2004) The determination of turbot tangle nets and trammel nets features, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and turbot fishing in Middle Black Sea (Sinop). Journal of SDU, Eğirdir Fisheries, 2: 100˗109 (In Turkish).

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Tonay, A. M., Öztürk, B. (2003) Cetacean bycatches in turbot fishery on the western coast of the Turkish Black Sea. In: International Symposium of Fisheries and Zoology (In memory of Ord. Prof. Dr. Curt Kosswig in his 100th birth anniversary), (eds., I. K. Oray, M. S. Çelikkale, G. Özdemir), Istanbul, 131˗138 pp.

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Annotated check list of the non˗native fish species (Pisces) of the Black Sea

Maria Yankova, Danail Pavlov, Petya Ivanova, Evgenia Karpova, Alexander Boltachev, Levent Bat, Muammer Oral, Marina Mgeladze

Institute of Oceanology, BAS, First of May St., P. O. Box: 152, 9000, Varna, BULGARIA
Society of Innovative Ecologists in Bulgaria, Dr. Bassanovich St., No. 10, 9010, Varna, BULGARIA
Institute of Biology of Southern Seas, Sevastopol, Nakhimov av., 99011, Sevastopol, UKRAINE
Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No: 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Sinop University, 57000, Sinop, TURKEY
Water Ecology and Fisheries Laboratory, National Environmental Agency, Agmashenebeli, Tbilisi, 0112, GEORGIA


Reviewing published data, we present a list of invasive alien fish species in the Black Sea coast, including data for year and place of the first occurrence in the national waters. Twenty˗one species belonging to eight genera are listed.

Keywords: Black Sea, invasive species

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Aleksandrov, B., Boltachev, A., Kharchenko, T., Liashenko, A., Son, M., Tsarenko, P., Zhukinsky, V. (2007) Trends of aquatic alien species invasions in Ukraine. Aquatic Invasion 27 (2): 215˗242.

Balık, S., Turan, D. (2004) A first record for the bighead goby (Neogobius kessleri Günther, 1861) along the Turkish Eastern Black Sea Coast. Tr. J. Zool. 28: 107˗109.

Bat, L., Demirci, G. G., Öztürk, M. (2006) Occurrence of Apletodon dentatus bacescui (Murgoci, 1940) (Gobiesocidae) and Coryphoblennius galerita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blenniidae) at the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. J. Black Sea/ Mediterranean Environment 12 (1): 59˗65.

Bat, L., Erdem, Y., Ustaoğlu, S., Yardım, Ö., Satılmış, H. H. (2005) A study on the fishes of the central Black Sea coast of Turkey. J. Black Sea/ Mediterranean Environment 11 (3): 287˗302.

Bogorodskii, S. V. (2006) Discovery of Parablennius incognitus (Blenniidae) off the Eastern Coast of the Black Sea, Northern Abkhazia. Journal of Ichthyology 46: 18˗24.

Boltachev, A. R. (2009) Specifying species belonging of Barracuda of Group Sphyraena obtusata (Pisces: Sphyraenidae) found in the Black Sea. Voprosy Ikhtiologii 49 (1): 135˗137.

Boltachev, A. R., Astakhov, D. A. (2004) An unusual finding of pennant coralfish Heniochus acuminatus (Chaetodontidae) in Balaklava Bay (Sevastopol, Southwestern Crimea). Journal of Ichthiology, 44 (6): 853˗854 (in Russian).

Boltachev, A. R., Gaevskaya, A. V., Zuev, G. V., Yurakhno, V. M. (1999) The blue whiting, Micromesistius poutassou (Risso, 1826) (Pisces: Gadidae), the new species for the Black Sea fauna. Ecologiya Morya 48: 79˗82 (in Russian).

Boltachev, A. R., Karpova, E. P. (2010) Bath’s goby Pomatoschistus bathi (Perciformes, Gobiidae) is the new species for the ichthyofauna of the Crimean Black Sea coastal zone. Marine Ecological Journal. T. 9 (2): 57 (in Russian).

Boltachev, A. R., Karpova, E. P., Danilyuk, O. N. (2009) Findings of new and rare fish species in the coastal zone of the Crimea (the Black Sea). J. Ichthyology 49: 277˗291.

Boltachev, A. R., Yurakhno, V. M. (2002) New evidences of the Black Sea ichtyofauna mediterranization. Voprosy ichtiologiy. T. 42 (6): 744˗750 (in Russian).

Busnita, T. (1929) Fishery, Issue Sept. (in Romanian).

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Engin, S., Turan, D., Kovacic, M. (2007) First record of the red˗mouthed goby, Gobius cruentatus (Pisces: Gobiidae), in the Black Sea. International Journal of Ichthyology CYBIUM 31 (1): 87˗88.

Fischer, W., Bauchot, M. L., Schneider, M. (1937) Fiches FAO d’idendificationd es espéces pour les besoins de la pêche. (Revision 1), Mediterranée et mer Noire, Zone de Pêche 37, 2, Vertébres FAO, 76l˗1530 pp.

Kessler, K. T. (1877) The Aralo˗Caspian Expedition. IV. Fishes of the Aralo˗Caspio˗Pontine ichthyological region. St. Petersburg. Naturgeschichte der Fische Islands, 360 pp.

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Oral, M. (2010) Alien fish species in the Mediterranean˗Black Sea Basin. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 16 (1): 87˗132.

Öztürk, B., Turan, C. (2012) Alien species in the Turkish Seas. In: The State of the Turkish Fisheries, (eds., A. Tokaç, A. C. Gücü, B. Öztürk), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, 92˗130 pp.

Perrings, C., Mooney, H., Williamson, M. (2010) Bioinvasions and Globalization: Ecology, Economy, Management and Policy. Oxford University Press, 266 pp.

Raykov, V., Panayotova, M., Ivanova, P., Dobrovolov, I., Maximov, V. (2012) First record and allozyme data of European mudminnow Umbra krameri Walbaum, 1792 (Pisces: Umbridae) in the Black Sea. Comptes rendus de l’Academie bulgare des Sciences 65 (1): 49˗52.

Salehova, L. P, Kostenko, N. S, Bogachik, T. A, Minibaeva, O. N. (1987) The composition of fish fauna in the area of Karadag State Reserve (Black Sea). Journal of Ichthyology 27(6): 898˗905 (in Russian).

Skolka, M., Preda, C. (2010) Alien invasive species at the Romanian Black Sea coast – present and perspectives. Travaux du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle «Grigore Antipa» LIII: 443˗467 (in Romanian).

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Environmental and safe optimization of crude oil washing on crude oil tankers

Murat Hasan Ali Altun, Özcan Arslan

Department of Maritime Transportation Engineering, Maritime Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Tuzla, Istanbul, TURKEY


Crude oil is one of the most harmful substances for the environment because of its components. Pollution can be divided in two categories: sea pollution and air pollution. For that reason, discharging of crude oil and its products into the sea should be minimized by means of crude oil washing operation optimization not to destroy the environment. During the transportation of crude oil, the most difficult problem encountered is discharging of crude oil. There are some threats, advantages, disadvantages and opportunities during vessel’s crude oil washing operation to discharge its entire crude oil cargo. Under the light of this study, safety measures and auxiliary equipments was investigated to optimize the safe crude oil washing operation. Threats and consequences which are expected after or at the time of crude oil washing and as well as its advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. In this study, vessels at different conditions were compared to each other according to simulations and we aimed to enlighten the crude oil transportation which takes an important position in maritime sector. Under all these safety precautions, human and environmental safety requirements which need to be taken priority were investigated in detail at the time of optimization period.

Keywords: Crude oil washing, optimization, tanker safety, pollution prevention

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Altun, M. H. A. (2013) Safe optimization of crude oil washing (COW) on crude oil tankers. Master Thesis, Department of Maritime Transportation Engineering, Maritime Faculty, Istanbul Technical University, Tuzla, Istanbul, 179 pp.

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Arslan, O., Er, I. D. (2008) SWOT Analysis for safer Carriage of Bulk Liquid Chemicals in Tankers. Journal of Hazardous Materials 154: 901˗913.

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COW Systems (2000) Crude Oil Washing Systems. Including amendments adopted by the MEPC at its forty˗third session from 28 June to 2 July 1999 and by the assembly at its twenty˗first session from 15 to 26 November 1999), International Maritime Organization, Suffolk, London, UK, 97 pp.

Fernanda V. P., Manuel C. C., Delmo V. S., Maria I. M. C., Arnaldo N. A., Maria L. T. B., Mauricio F. (2013) Comparative study of sample decomposition methods for the determination of total Hg in crude oil and related products. Fuel Processing Technology 106: 122˗126.

Hanninen, S., Rytkonen, J. (2006) Transportation of Liquid Bulk Chemicals by Tankers in the Baltic Sea. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT Publications 595, Otakaari, Finland, 155 pp.

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Hayrinen, S., Raty, J., Hurmola, M. (2001) Tanker Safety (eds., P. Aulikki), Centre for Occupational Safety˗Maritime Safety Committee Publication, Helsinki, Finland, 12˗24 pp.

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Sun, K., Yu G., Li, X. (2005) Simulation test research on incendive ESD in tanker cargo. Journal of Electrostatics 63: 469˗473.

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Age, growth and reproduction of Mullus surmuletus(Linnaeus, 1758) in Saros Bay (Northern Aegean Sea)

Mukadder Arslan, Ali İşmen

Department of Fishing and Processing Technology, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100, Çanakkale, TURKEY


The age, growth, reproduction of Mullus surmuletus, caught in Saros Bay (North Aegean Sea) between November 2006 and June 2008, were investigated. The female˗male ratio was 1.6:1. The total length (weight) of females ranged from 11.0 cm to 26.8 cm (15.3 g to 235.1 g) and of males from 11.8 cm to 19.8 cm (19.1 g to 91.2 g). The growth parameters for females were calculated as L=28.38 cm K=0.19 year ˗1, t=˗2.16 year and for males L=26.94 cm, K=0.20 year ˗1, t=˗2.34 year. The length at first maturity for females and males was 13.7 cm and 13.2 cm, respectively. Monthly values of the gonadosomatic index indicated that spawning occurred mainly between April and May.

KeywordsMullus surmuletus, age, growth, reproduction

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The first observations of oocyte diameters for the pipefish from the southern Black Sea

Şule Gürkan, Burcu Taylan

Department of Marine˗Inland Water Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, TURKEY


Syngnathid specimens sample between July 2001˗May 2002 was examined about measurements of oocyte diameter in the coastal waters of Sinop peninsula, southern Back Sea. The specimens of Syngnathid fishes (Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle, Syngnathus variegatus, Syngnathus tenuirostris, Nerophis ophidion) catched with using hand dredge from the vegetated coastal area. According to results, the mean of hydrated oocyte diameter was calculated as, respectively: Syngnathus acus: 1.96 mm, Syngnathus typhle: 1.76 (♀) and 2.22 (♂) mm, Syngnathus tenuirostris: 1.81 mm, Syngnathus variegatus: 1.63 mm and Nerophis ophidion: 0.89 mm. Also with this study, oocytes diameter values of Syngnathus tenuirostris, Syngnathus variegatus, Syngnathus typhle and Nerophis ophidion determined for the first time from coast of Turkey.

Keywords: Syngnathidae, oocyte diameter, southern Black Sea, Turkey

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A study on some morphological characteristics of Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz 1823) in seven different inland waters in Turkey

Tomris Deniz (Bök), Hamdi Aydın, Celal Ateş

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Kocaeli University, Gazanfer Bilge Vocational School, 41500 Karamürsel, Kocaeli, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, 48000 Kötekli, Muğla, TURKEY


This study aimed to determine some morphological characteristics of freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz 1823) populations in various water resources in Turkey. We present the relationships between total length (TL), carapace length (CL), chelae length (ChL), abdomen length (AL) and total weight (W) for Astacus leptodactylus from three lakes, three dam lakes and an irrigation lake. The values of the exponent b of the length˗weight relationships ranged from 1.0760 to 3.6939 and intercepts from 1.0760 to 3.6939 for combined data. The r2 values ranged from 0.6599 to 0.9561 and relationships were estimated highly significant (P<0.05). Differences in slopes of regression lines between sexes as well as among locations were not significant, tested by ANCOVA.

Keywords: Crayfish, morphometric characteristics, length˗weight relationship, allometric growth

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Phthalate pollution in fish Sarda sardaEngraulis encrasicolusMullus surmuletusMerlangius merlangusand shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris

Kasım Cemal Güven, Burak Coban

Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P. O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Bülent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, TURKEY


Phthalate esters pollution was investigated in fish Sarda sarda, Engraulis encrasicolus, Mullus surmuletus, and Merlangius merlangus from the Black Sea and shrimp Parapenaeus longirostrisfrom the Sea of Marmara. The identified phthalate esters were dioctylphthalate in flesh and dibutylphthalate in digestive tract of E. encrasicolus and isobutylphthalate in digestive tract of S. sarda and M. surmuletus. However, phthalate derivatives were not found in M. merlangus and P. longirostris. This is the first record for phthalates found in fish and shrimp in Turkish coasts.

Keywords: GC/MS, Phthalates, fish

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Parasitic cestodes of fish in the waters off Gökçeada, North Aegean Sea

Ahmet Akmirza

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No: 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


This study, performed in April, July, September, October 2011 and January, April 2012 near Gökçeada in the northeastern Aegean Sea in Turkey, seven species of cestoda (Bothriocephalus scorpii, Tetrarhynchobothrium tenuicolle, Acanthobothrium coronatum, Phyllobothrium gracilis, Echeneibothrium variabile, Echinobothrium typus, Scolex pleuronectis) were identified in a total of 57 fish samples of 13 fish species (Trachurus mediterraneus, Boops boops, Trachinus araneus, Scomber japonicus, Torpedo marmorata, Dasyatis sp., Phycis phycis, Conger conger, Squalus acanthias, Raja clavata, Raja miraletus, Scyliorhinus canicula, Monochirus hispidus) among a total of 887 fish samples of 50 fish species. T. tenuicolle, E. variabile are new records for the study area and Turkey.

Keywords: Cestoda, fish parasite, Gökçeada

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Akmirza, A. (2002) Parasites of the Acanthocephala and Cestoda species found in fish caught near Gökçeada. Turkish Journal of Parasitology 26 (1): 93˗98 (in Turkish).

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