Heavy metals in edible tissues of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Southern Black Sea (Turkey)

Levent Bat, Fatih Şahin, Murat Sezgin, Funda Üstün, Oylum Gökkurt Baki, Hasan Can Öztekin

Faculty of Fisheries, Sinop University, 57000, Sinop, TURKEY


In the present study, heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni and Fe) have been measured in edible tissues of the brown shrimp Crangon crangon (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from Samsun coasts in the Black Sea coast of Turkey in 2010. Variations of heavy metal concentrations with seasons are compared. Cd and Pb concentrations in C. crangon were the lowest heavy metal concentrations, while Fe concentrations were highest level observed in all seasons. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Mn, Ni and Fe were in the range of 0.228-0.481, 0.291-0.491, 5.85-14.77, 18-36, 0.24-0.61, 6-15, 2-6 and 30-58 μg.g-1 wet weight, respectively. In general the heavy metal findings in the brown shrimp were below the Turkish Food Codex, Commission Regulation (EC) and MAFF maximum permitted levels for human consumption. It is concluded that the brown shrimps are suitable biomonitors to assess changes in metal pollution in the coastal area of the Black Sea.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Crangon crangon, Black Sea, food codex


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HPLC and spectrofluorimetric determination of pyrene in the Lebanese coast

Jamil Rima

Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Environmental Engineering and Biology, Faculty of Science II, P.O. Box 26110217, Lebanese University, Fanar, LEBANON


In this article, homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HOLLE), combined with HPLC-fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD and Fluorescence Spectrophotometer, has been developed for the extraction and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted seawater. A liquid-liquid extraction followed by evaporative concentration method was used to determine the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Lebanese marine water. Hydrocarbons were extracted from 450 ml of water into 75 ml n-hexane and then concentrated into 1 or 2 ml solution by evaporation. Internal standard addition method was used to determine the pyrene. Under the optimum conditions, repeatability was carried out by spiking pyrene at concentration level of 114.5 μg/l. the RSDs varied between 1.1 and 8.5% (n = 3). The LODs, based on S/N of 3, ranged from 0.025 to 0.25 μg/l. The pyrene determined in marine water was generated from the incomplete combustion of fuel oil in the powerplant of Zouk Mikael (Lebanon). Several PAHs were observed but the pyrene was easily indentified and quantified, due to the relative high concentration of this compound.

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Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY


We investigated the octocoral diversity of Balıkçı Island in the Marmara Sea. Three sites were sampled by diving, from 20 to 45 m deep. Nine species were found, two of which are first records for Turkish fauna: Alcyonium coralloides and Paralcyonium spinulosum. Scientific identification of Alcyonium acaule in the Turkish seas was also done for the first time in this study.

Keywords: Octocoral, soft coral, gorgonian, diversity, Marmara Sea


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Spatio-temporal patterns of abundance, biomass and length-weight relationship of white grouper, Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) (Pisces: Serranidae) in the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey (Levantine Sea)

Elif Özgür Özbek, Turhan Kebapçıoğlu, Mine Çardak

Antalya Metropolitan Municipality, Department of International Relations, Directorate of European Union Relations and Projects, Antalya, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100, Çanakkale, TURKEY


The present paper reports the abundance and biomass of white grouper, Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817), (Pisces: Serranidae) according to depth levels and seasons in the Gulf of Antalya, and the length-weight relationship parameters of 350 individuals. A total of 116 hauls were carried out, between August 2009 and April 2010, seasonally in the Gulf of Antalya, at six stations and six depth levels (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 m), using a commercial bottom trawl. E. aeneus was sampled from 60 hauls and the frequency of occurrence was 51.72%. The overall average biomass of E. aeneus was 55.78 kg/kmand the mean abundance was 60.60 ind./km2 .The smallest total length (TL) was 10 cm and the maximum TL was 101 cm. The mean TL was calculated as 34.99 cm. The general length-weight relationship was described by the equation: W = 0.040*L2.657 (r2: 0.958; p<0.001). Mean TL and weight of the specimens, b-value and mean biomass per abundance were highest in summer. The mean biomass per abundance was higher in Sts. D, E and F than Sts. A, B and C, located in the eastern part of the gulf. The mean abundance decreased as the depth level increased, however, mean biomass per abundance and mean TL and weight of the individuals increased constantly from 25 m to 100 m depth. The percentage of the mature fish decreased as the depth decreased.

KeywordsEpinephelus aeneus, white grouper, seasonal trawl survey, Antalya, Mediterranean Sea, length-weight relationship


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Zooplankton abundance in the lower Sakarya River Basin (Turkey): Impact of environmental variables

Zeynep Dorak

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


In the present study the community structure and diversity of zooplankton were investigated seasonally in the polluted water of the lower Sakarya River Basin during February 2008-January 2009. The environmental variables measured were river flow, water temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, suspended particulate matter, chlorophyll a and nutrients (NO2-N, NO3-N, SiO2, PO4-P, TP). Determined environmental parameters were at the suitable intervals for habitat choice of identified zooplankton species. Thirty-two zooplankton taxa were determined , which were mostly indicators of eutrophic water of the study area. Rotifera was the most abundant group (96.4%), followed by Copepoda (2.7%) and Cladocera (1.0%). The dominant taxa were Brachionus budapestinensis Daday, Keratella cochlearis (Gosse), Polyarthra vulgaris (Carlin), Synchaeta oblonga Ehrenberg and Trichocerca ruttneri Donner from Rotifera, Copepod nauplii from Copepoda and Bosmina longirostris (Müller) from Cladocera. Depending on the station, zooplankton abundance and environmental parameters showed seasonal variation. Generally, higher zooplankton abundance and higher temperature resulted in a higher zooplankton diversity index. Statistical analyses indicated that rotifers and total zooplankton were highly associated with environmental parameters, especially water temperature and nutrients. Degree of pollution determines the quality as well as the quantity of plankton in the study area. Consequently, waste waters should be controlled, and pollution must be prevented to conserve biodiversity of zooplankton fauna and in consequence food web of the study area. All zooplankton species identified were the first records for the study area.

Keywords: Lower Sakarya River Basin, zooplankton, physicochemical factors, seasonal distribution, Redundancy Analysis (RDA)


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