The coastal productivity and mariculture activities in Turkey

The coastal productivity and mariculture activities in Turkey

Altan Acara, Erdoğan Okuş

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, Atatürk Bulvarı, 221, Çankaya, Ankara, TURKEY

Abstract

The Turkish coastal regions where the edge of the seaward continental shelf lies at around the 200 m depth contour constituting a small portion of the sea that over 90 percent of the catch are taken. In these coastal regions several major distinct biogeographical regions can be identified such as the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean and the Mediterranean coastal regions. This is the result of a combination of factors including primarily the influence of the warm, saline waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the relatively cool, less saline rich nutrient water of the Black Sea. The Turkish Black Sea coastal region has generally narrow continental shelf with a large fresh water input increase the productivity of the area where 80 percent of the coastal shelf annual catch are taken compare with the Mediterranean Sea where the continental shelf and fresh water input are narrow and small respectively where the catch represent about only 4 percent of the total annual catch. The Sea of Marmara coastal region is a mixing area between these two different seas and represent about 12 percent of the total annual catch. The increasing demand on living resources is growing recognition of the potential of mariculture with a certain limitations in the coastal regions of Turkey. This paper attempts to collect existing data to prepare a country report on this subject.

Keywords: Turkish coastal regions, the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea

The marine coastal zone management and scientific research priorities

The marine coastal zone management and scientific research priorities

Altan Acara

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, Ankara, TURKEY

Abstract

The Turkish coastal zone where the edge of the seaward continental shelf lies at about the 200 m. depth contour constituting a small portion of the sea that over 90 percent of the catch are taken, human activities are often concentrated, often least able to assimilate those activities and where adverse effects are most apparent. The coastal zones contribute wealth to the Turkish economy about $ 1.3 billion sea food industry, about $ 4.0 billion marine transportation industry and about $ 4.0 billion tourism industry which totals $ 9.3 billion annually. There is often a conflict of uses within the coastal zone where one use might have an adverse impact on another actual or potential use. The coastal zone is a system made interlinked social and natural components and processes needs an action plan for its best use, implementation and enforcement by a administrative arrangement. In Turkey, the National Marine Science and Technology Researchanmd Development Programme for the coastal zone consists eight sections. They are marine science, environmental management, science and engineering, marine technology, fisheries and aquaculture, monitoring and information, related other research activities, and international relations.

Keywords: Marine coastal zone, management, research priorities

FATTY ACIDS IN THE BLUBBER OF THE MEDITERRANEAN MONK SEAL, MONACHUS MONACHUS (HERMANN, 1779)

Fatty acids in the blubber of the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779)

Zeliha Yazıcı, Bayram Öztürk

Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine,  University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

In this study Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus oil has been examined for the first time, using capillary gas chromatography twenty-two fatty acids(FAs) were identified from monk seal oiI. Oleic ( 18: 1n-9, 24.7 %), palmitoleic (16: 1n-7, 23 %), palmitic ( 16:0, 20.8 %), miristic (14:0, 6.2 %), cis-vacsenic (18: 1n-7, 5.7 %), docosahexaenoic (22: 6n-3, 4.7 %) and erusic (22: 1 n-7, 3.1 %),eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, 1.3 % ) and docosapentaenoic ( 22: 5n-3. 1.2 %) acids were prominent. Combained amount of the unsaturated FAs were 133% higher then saturated. The blubber oil of the Mediterranean monk seal contained considerably less 20: 5n-3, and 22: 6n-3 than the blubbers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the Baltık Sea, Spitsbergen, Lake Ladoga and Lake Saimaa. The differences among the FAs in these species could be due to different dietary factors and species.

Keywords: Fatty acids, monk seal blubber, Monachus monachus

Accumulation of arsenic in goby fish (Proterorhinus marmorathus) and the effect of detergent on the accumulation

Accumulation of arsenic in goby fish (Proterorhinus marmorathus) and the effect of detergent on the accumulation

Sayhan Topçuoğlu

Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, P.O. Box 1, Atatürk Airport, 34831 Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

In this study, the accumulation of arsenic was investigated in goby fish from water pathway under laboratory conditions. The bioaccumulation rate of  74As was found to be relatively slow. The pattern of accumulation results represented by a equation of Ct=0.23 (1-e-0. 1104t). The effect of the LAS on the arsenic accumulation was also ivestigated and the result showed that the LAS had no effect significantly.

Keywords: Arsenic, accumulation, goby fish, detergent

Gas-Charged late Quaternary Sediments in Strait of Çanakkale (Dardanelles)

Gas-charged late quaternary sediments in Strait of Çanakkale (Dardanelles)

Bedri Alpar, Hüseyin Yüce, Ertuğrul Doğan

Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34470 Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, 81647 Çubuklu, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

The nature of bottom sediments in the Strait of Çanakkale (Dardanelles) depends on the interaction of the channel geometry and flow conditions. The sand-size sediments are found in narrow parts of the strait’s channel where high-energy conditions prevail. Such high-energy flow sections of the channel include the narrows of Çanakkale and Nara. Sand and silty sand are also distributed in narrow bands along both shores of the channel. Terrigenous mud is the major sediment type covering deeper and wider parts of the strait channel where bottom currents are relatively weak. Shallow seismic profiling shows the presence of two main seismic sedimentary sequences in the Dardanelles; late Quaternary sediments and acoustic basement. These are separated by an erosional truncation surface. The late Quaternary sediments consists of at least three sediment sub-units. These sub-units can be interpreted as Holocene posttransgression marine deposits (A1), basinward-prograding deltaic sediments deposited during the Würm glaciation (A2), and basal transgressive marine sediments (A3), possibly Tyrrhenian age. The acoustic basement is formed from the Miocene shallow marine clastic sediments distributed widely on both sides of the strait. The lower two sub-units of the late Quaternary sediments are locally gas-charged in the wider parts of the straits channel. The origin of the gas is not adequately known: it could have heen formed by fermantation reactions during the early diagenesis of sub-unit A3.  The channel of the strait appears to be fault controlled with the faults being generally parallel to the coast. Some faults are still active and cut the late Quaternary sediments.

Keywords: Dardanelles, gas-charged sediments, bottom sediments, shallow seismic

LARGER OSTRACODA IN THE SEA OF MARMARA: GENERAL DISTRIBUTION OF BOSQUETINA DENTATA (G.W. MULLER, 1894)

Larger ostracoda in the sea of Marmara: general distribution of Bosquetina dentata (G.W. Muller, 1894)

Cemal Tunoğlu

Hacettepe University, Geological Engin. Dept. 06532, Beytepe, Ankara, TURKEY

Abstract

Bosquetina dentata (G.W.Müller, 1894) is a benthic ostracoda specimen which has larger dimensions than the other ostracoda species of the Sea of Marmara. This species is known very common in all around of the Mediterranean. B. dentata are found and observed generally shallow-circolittoral but fairly deep-marine in the sea of Marmara.

Keywords: Ostracoda, Bosquetina dentata, sea of Marmara, recent, Turkey

General Distribution of Pterigocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850) and Pterigocythereis ceratoptera (Bosquet, 1852) (Ostracoda) in the sea of Marmara

General distribution of Pterigocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850) and Pterigocythereis ceratoptera (Bosquet, 1852) (Ostracoda) in the sea of Marmara

Cemal Tunoğlu

Hacettepe University, Geological Engineering Departmen,. 06532 Beytepe, Ankara, TURKEY

Abstract

Genus Pterigocythereis and related species are known all around of the Mediterranean recently. Pterigocythereis jonesii and P. ceratoptera are important species which they observed for the first time with this study in the benthic ostracoda thanatocoenosis and biocoenosis of the Sea of Marmara. These species have been found in all of the locations of shallow water at depths between 20-60 m. and especially in near-shore throughout the Sea of Marmara coasts. Their habitat are exist different types of substrate, but they prefer commonly on sandy mud and silty mud bottom sediments.

Keywords: Ostracoda, Pterigocythereis, Sea of Marmara

 

EXTENTS OF THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT IN THE YZMIT, GEMLIK, AND BANDIRMA BAYS

Extents of the North Anatolian Fault in the Izmit, Gemlik, and Bandırma Bays

Aykut Barka, Ismail Kusçu

ITU, Faculty of Mining Department of Geology, Ayazağa, Istanbul, TURKEY
MTA, Ankara, TURKEY

Abstract

High resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles, surveyed by MTA Sismik-1 in the Izmit, Gemlik and Bandmna bays, in 1984, were re-examined in order to understand geometry and kinematics of the northern and middle strands of the North Anatolian Fault. We used the pull-apart model to detect the course of the strands. We concluded that this approach fits well with the fault patterns and all three strands seems to have identical fault geometry and kinematics. GPS measurements geomorphology, bathimetry and tickness of sediment in the basins, and historical earthquake records in the eastern Marmara Sea region show that slip rate is higher along the northern strand than the middle strand suggesting higher earthquake risk along the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault.

Keyword: Shallow seismic reflection profiles, lzmit, Gemlik and Bandırma Bays

Late quarternary depositional environments on the outhern Marmara shelf

Late quarternary depositional environments on the southern Marmara shelf

Mustafa Ergin, Nizamettin Kazancı, Baki Varol, Özden Ileri, Levent Karadenizli

Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geological Engineering, Tandoğan, 06100 Ankara, TURKEY

Abstract

In this study, 182 surficial sediment samples have been used to investigate the characteristics of sedimentary depositional environments on the southern Marmara shelf. Grain size analyses revealed the presence of, at least, three distinct depositional zones where sediments contained relatively high sand and gravel components partly derived from the remains of benthic organisms. Zone 1 extends from the Bozburun Peninsula in the east to the west off Imralı Island in the west. Zone 2 extends from the east off Marmara Island to the east off Kapıdağ Peninsula. Zone 3 extends from west of Marmara Island towards southwest. The sediments of these three zones grade into fine-grained mud both in nearshore and offshore directions. The presence of ridge-like and high bottom reliefs, based on bathymetric profiles, further suggest that these zones could be relict features such as former shorelines resulted from the last sea-level changes. Due to lack of data, possible influences of neotectonics remain questionable. Zone 3 seems to be controlled by a complex of mechanisms. Further investigations are underway.

Keywords: Sediment, southern Marmara shelf, carbonat contents, grain size

DISTRIBUTION OF CARBONATE AND ORGANIC CARBON CONTENTS IN LATE QUATERNARY SEDIMENTS OF THE SOUTHERN MARMARA SHELF

Distribution of carbonate and organic carbon contents in late quaternary sediments of the southern Marmara shelf

M. Namık Çağatay, Oya Algan, Nuray Balkıs, Mehmet Balkıs

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY

Abstract

A total of 165 surface and 81 core samples from four gravity cores were analyzed for their total carbonate and organic carbon contents. The sediments are generally low in carbonate content (<10% CaCO3) along the inner shelf. Relatively higher values (>10% CaCO3) are found on the outer shelf to the north, along a belt extending from the Bozburun Peninsula to west of Mamara Island. Patches of >20% CaCOvalues occur between the lmralı Island and Bozburun Peninsula, NE of the Kapıdağ Peninsula, and in a belt extending west from the Kapıdağ Peninsula, through the Avşa Island to Karabiga. The high carbonate areas generally correspond to the sandy sediments with high contents of shell material. Total organic carbon content of the surface sediments ranges from 0.10-2.50%, with the high values being located in shallow areas along the coast and decreasing values occuring in the offshore direction. This distribution pattern suggests that the organic-carbon matter is mainly of terrestrial origin. Depth profiles of organic carbon values along the core samples indicate the presence of a sapropel layer in two cores (No.22 and 13) in the Gemlik Gulf. The highest carbonate (8-12% CaCO3) and organic carbon values (1.7-2.11%) are found in a phosphorescent green, plastic, clayey sapropelic mud horizon at a depth ranging from 1. 75 to 2. 15 m. This layer is enriched in planktonic foraminifera but depleted in benthic foraminifera species, suggesting both the high surface organic productivity and bottom unoxic conditions. It was probably deposited following the Holocene transgression during a pluival period when increased quantities of nutrients were supplied by rivers into the Sea of Marmara and when water stratification was established. Radiometric carbon, organic and isotope geochemical studies are in progress on this layer.

Keywords: Sea of Marmara, quaternary sediments, sapropels, organic carbon, total carbonate