A new determination method of anionic detergent in the seawater based on metachromasy and correlation between Azur A and methylene blue assays
Serap Akıncı, Kasım Cemal Güven
University of Istanbul, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Müşküle Sok., 1, Vefa, 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
Anionic detergents in seawater have usually been determined by methylene blue method. In addition, Azur A assay was proposed in this work correlation was sought between the two methods. The assays were made at α-band and metachromatic band (β-band) of both dyes. The calibration curves were plotted at 625 nm and 600 nm for methylene blue and at 637 nm and 600 nm for Azur A. Anionic detergent amounts in seawater found were 16.82 µg/L at 652 nm and 18.66 µg/L at 600 nm for methylene blue and 16.14 µg/L at 637 nm and 15.52 µg/L at 590 nm for Azur A. The results of the seawater plus 25 µg/L LAS were: 39.30 µg/L. µg/L for methylene blue and 41.14 µg/L 39.46 µg/L for Azur A respectively. The results of detergent amount in seawater and LAS added seawater are similar for α-bands of both dyes and slightly lower in metachronic bands (β-band). The interfering compounds in seawater influence the assay ehn using methylene blue and Azur A. It was difficult to eliminate totally this problem. The measurement can be made separately on the α and β bands of Azur A and also methylene blue. It is difficult to say either method as exact.
Keywords: Anionic detergent, methylene blue, Azur A, metachromatic assay, seawater
Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of mussel and shrimp consumed in Turkey
Serap Sağlık, Sedat Imre
University of Istanbul, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Istanbul, TURKEY
Seafoods contain many polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two of them, eicosapcntaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3) have beneficial effects reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Fatty acid compositions and cholesterol contents of mussel and shrimp widely consumed in Turkey were examined by GLC. The mussel was found to have the highest EPA (0.124 g/100 g). DHA (0.169 g/100 g) and the lowest cholesterol (20.2 mg/100 g) contents. The shrimp species had higher cholesterol (109.3 and 109.7 mg/100 g) and lower EPA (0.032 and 0.036 g/100 g). DHA (0.016 and 0.019 g/100 g) contents than mussel. Therefore the mussel consumption would be suitable for a preventive diet.
Keywords : Fatty acids, cholesterol, mussel, shrimp
Marketing some aquaculture species in Turkey
Marmara University, Vocational School of Technical Studies, Aquatic Products Department, 81400, Göztepe, Istanbul, TURKEY
This study covers the marketing of fish such as trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, W.1792) salmon (Salmo salar Linnacus 1758) sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax Linnaeus 1758), sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnacus 1758), and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus 1758) produced in Turkey. For this purpose enterprises of production are investigated in different inland places for trout and mirror carp, on the Black Sea coasts (from the western part to Hopa, in the east) for trout, salmon, sea bass and sea bream and also in Aegean and Mediterranean regions for sea bass and sea bream. Trout is marketed in various ways. Salmon is cultivated in only one enterprise, a small amount being sold to the domestic market and the rest exported. Sea bass and sea bream are marketed either as delivered to nearby notels and restaurants in small quantities or supplied to wholesale dealers in big lots. Three ways of marketing are also noted for mirror carp. The fish cultivated in the country are presented to the market as fresh, frozen, smoked or processed. Among the fish exported especially are trout, salmon, sea bass and sea bream. In the enterprises visited it is observed that the prices depended on the kind of fish and the period of fishing prohibitions and also arc generally lower than world prices. It is concluded that fish marketing in Turkey cannot be considered as sufficiently organized.
Keywords: Aquaculture, fish, marketing
Influence of environmental factors on condition index and biochemical composition in Mytilus edulis L. in cultivated-raft system, in two Scottish Sea Lochs
Sedat Karayücel, Ismihan Karayücel
University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Faculty of Fisheries, 57 000 Sinop, TURKEY
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA Scotland, UNITED KINGDOM
The effect of environmental parameters; salinity, temperature, seston, particulate organic matter (POM) and chlorophyll-a (Ch-a) on condition index and biochemical composition of Mytilus edulis L. in suspended raft culture in Loch Etive (LE) and Loch Kishorn (LK) were studied from May 1993 to August 1994. The condition indices: wet meat volume condition index (CIV) and dry meat weight condition index (CID) and meat yield (MY) of cultivated mussels showed a similar pattern at 2m and 6m at the both sites. CIV was found to be 41.82% and 57.15% while CID was 9.77 and 12.54 in LE and LK respectively. Site, but not depth had a significant effect on the condition indices, with the latter being significantly higher in LK than LE (P˂0.05). Mainly condition of mussels was affected by temperature and salinity in LE. However temperature had a main significant effect on condition index in LK. Mean protein was found to be 59.99±1.73% in LK and 56.13±1.85% in LE while mean value of carbonhydrate 29.07±2.58% and 31.16±3.14% in LK and Le respectively. Carbonhydrate had an inverse relationship with protein. Lipid was found to be 9.74±0.3% and 10.6±0.31 while ash values obtained were 8.05±0.44% and 7.36±0.43% in LK and LE respectively. Mean moisture was 79.39±0.74% in LE and 79.17±0.78% in LK. Carbonhydrate and lipid showed a positive relationship while protein and lipid were inversely related. Moisture and ash correlated positively with protein while they had a negative relationship with carbonhydrate and lipid at both sites.
Keywords: Mytilus edulis, environmental factors, condition index, bichemical composition
Identification of phthalate esters pollution in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles
Kasim Cemal Güven, Selma Ünlü, Erdoğan Okus, Ertuğrul Doğan, Tuncay Gezgin
University of Istanbul, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa, 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
Pthalate esters are used in various industries. They are toxic for marine organisms and are general contaminants. Phthalate esters were investigated in seawater of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles during 1995 and 1996. The detections were made by using GC/MS analysis and identified phthalate esters were: DEP, BP, DBP and DEHP. The same phthalate esters were found at the entrance and exit of both straits with some variations in months.
Keywords: Phthalate esters, Bosphorus, Dardanelles, seawater
Origin identification of oil spillage in marine pollution from ships by GC/MS and FTIR analyses
Kasim C. Güven, Erdoğan Okuş, Ertuğrul Doğan, Selma Ünlü, Tuncay Gezgin, Selmin Burak
University of Istanbul, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa, 34470, Istanbul, TURKEY
Samples were collected from an oil slick in Tuzla Bay released from two ships. The origin of the oil was identified by GC/MS and FTIR analyses. The aliphatic and aromatic group compounds were detected by GC/MS analysis. Similar FTIR spectra were obtained from the sea water and bilge water of ships. Both analysis methods support each other and they can be used for oil spillage identification. In addition to the Pr/Ph ratio, nor- Pr/Ph and nor – Pr/Ph ratios were used for the first time in the identification of oil spillage.
Keywords: Oil spillage, GC/MS, FTIR analyses
Coastline changes and inadequate management between Kilyos and Karaburun shoreline
Cem Gazioglu, Zeki Yasar Yücel, Selmin Burak, Erdogan Okus, Bedri Alpar
University of Istanbul, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa, 34470, Istanbul, TURKEY
The shoreline between Karaburun and Kilyos is tairly flat and mostly lined by beaches. The fact that sea water is shallow and the Belgrade Forest situated just behind the shoreline increases the touristic value of the area. However, coal, sand and clay are being produced at various quarries just behind the shoreline. As a result of open-surface excavations and mining, the accumulation of removed material has caused deterioration of the natural shoreline. During recent years depletion of coal reserves on land has caused mining activities to shift towards the shoreline. In this study based on the changes of the shoreline, the amount of area filled up with excavated material has been calculated by using remote sensing methods.
Keywords: Coastal management, coastal usage, remote sensing, mining, Istanbul
Studies on the uptake of copper, zinc and cadmium by the amphipod Corophium voiutator (Pallas) in the laboratory
University of Ondokuz Mayıs, Sinop Fisheries Faculty, 57000 Sinop, TURKEY
In this study, accumulation of copper, zinc and cadmium at varying concentrations from sea water and sediment under the laboratory conditions was assessed by bioaccumulation tests, using the marine crustacean Corophium volutator (Pallas). Concentrations of these metals in the whole tissues of C. volutator were determined at intervals of 3, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. There is positive correlation between metal levels in C. volutator and metal levels in sea water and sediment. The results also show that the accumulation of copper, zinc and cadmium in C. volutator from the sea water is higher than those from sediment.
Keywords: Corophium volutator, heavy metal, sediment, bioaccumulation
Effect of weather system on the regime of sea level variations in Izmir Bay
Bedri Alpar, Selmin Burak, Cem Gazioğlu
Istanbul University, Marine Sciences and Management Institute, Vefa, 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
On the basis of the daily and monthly mean data for the year 1990 at Menteş in lzmir Bay, the effects of both barometric pressure and wind on the fluctuations of sea level have been studied. Barometric pressure is one of the main parameters affecting sea level variations in Izmir Bay. The sea level has a significant inverse coherence with the barometric pressure for the frequency band lower than two-day periodicity. The wind is also a significant factor affecting sea level. At Menteş, increases in sea level are caused by westerly winds, while decreases in sea level are mainly caused by southerly and southeasterly winds, especially for higher wind speeds.
Keywords: Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea, sea level, air-sea interaction, atmospheric forcing
Tolerance of a Cyanobacterium Phormidium fragile, to strontium in presence or absence of other heavy metals
Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, EGYPT
This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of different concentrations of strontium and its interaction with certain metals upon some physiological aspects of Phormidium fragile. The results revealed that dry weight, protein and carbohydrate contents as well as acid phosphatase activity decreased with increased strontium concentration. Low doses of strontium hardly affected lipids or DNA content as well as nitrate reductase and GOT activities. In the meantime, it increased GPT and alkaline phosphatase activities. Low concentrations of strontium decreased RNA content, but larger doses hardly affected its accumulation. Calcium nullified the harmful effects of strontium on dry weight, protein, carbohydrates and RNA contents but could not counteract strontium effects on the other parameters. Antimony hardly affected the influence of strontium on dry weight gain and DNA content, slightly decreased the carbohydrate content and alkaline phosphatase activity but slightly increased the protein content. Antimony nullified strontium effects on RNA or lipids levels, nitrate reductase, GOT, GPT and acid phosphatase activities. The addition of cadmium, singly or jointly with calcium and antimony to strontium-containing media as deleterious to all growth criteria. Pigment contents were severely attenuated by strontium alone or combined with other metals.
Keywords: Phromidium fragile, strontium, heavy metals