The Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus) : The seaway separating the continents with its dense shipping traffic
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34116 Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
The Strait of Istanbul connecting the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, is one of the major trade artery in the World with an average of 132 transits a day, second to the Straits of Malacca. The Montreux Convention of 1936 relating to the regime of the Turkish Straits establishes freedom of passage and navigation with certain formalities for merchant vessels of any flag and with any kind of cargo, by day and by night, and the Strait is kept open for shipping traffic. Hence the Bosphorus serves as an international seaway of economic and strategic importance. Due to angular windings transit shopping either way, requires at least 12 major course alterations as much as 80°, with severely limited vision around these bends. Geographical and oceanographic conditions as well as navigational constraints are the main parametres making the navigation through difficult and risky. Additionally, since passage through the Strait, entails a run by about 17 nautical miles all the way and takes almost two hours, utmost vigilance is necessary in order to maintain safe standards of navigation and to conduct vessels. ‘ Turkey introduced the traffic separation schemes, in full compliance with the Rule 10 of the ColRegs 72, in the Turkish Straits Region, the Strait of Istanbul inclusive, to enhance safety of navigation. The new schemes have been in use since 01 July 1994. One of the contemporary safety measures that Turkish Republic has taken recently is to install the use of the VTMIS, Vessel Traffic Management and Information System. The System based on 7 radar stations is fully operational as from 01 July 2003. A The Strait faces dense shipping transits. Mean figure to cover 1994-2002 period indicates that 132 vessels a day navigate the Bosphorus. Taking 1936 figure as the basis, shipping traffic has increased by almost ten times. The Strait faced 461 marine casualties of different types – i.e 209 collisions, 138 groundings, 77 strandings, 28 fires / explosions and 9 others (such as rudder blockade, vessel’s list, or engine breakdown) – in 1953-2002 period. Safe navigation in the Bosphorus is a matter of vital importance to Turkey as well as to all nations using the Strait. Therefore, the dangers posed by ever increasing shipping traffic to the surrounding inhabited areas and to the environment have compelled Turkey to take immediate action and to reinforce existing regulations of maritime traffic in the Strait.
Keywords: The Strait of Istanbul, Montreux Convention, seaway, Vessel Traffic System (VTS), casualty, shipping traffic, current, Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS ), grounding, stranding
Ultrastructure of the chorion and its micropyle apparatus in the mature discus (Symphysodon spp.) eggs
Esra Savas, Metin Timur
Istanbul University, Faculty of Aquatic Products, Laleli 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
The surface ultrastructure of discus (Symphysodon spp.) eggs was investigated by a scanning electron microscopy technique. The telolecital, oval and pale yellow colored mature discus eggs were possessed a micropyle and consisted of relatively smooth-sided, funnel-shaped vestibule at the bottom. The outer surface of the eggs were covered with pile of short fibrils.
Keywords: Ultrastructure, chorion, micropyle, Symphysodon spp.
The pollution of Zeytinburnu Port, Istanbul, Turkey
Kasim Cemal Guven, Nuray Balkis, Kartal Çetintürk, Erdogan Okus
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa 34116 Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
The pollutants of sediment of Zeytinburnu Port were determined. The pollutant amounts were found high for organic as oil (3.8 mg/g), chlorined pestisides (9.55 ng/g), phenol and anorganic as Zinc, hydrogen sulphide, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate. The degradation products of DDT were determined as DDE and DDD. According to these results Zeytinburnu Port is a highly polluted area.
Keywords: Pollution, Zeytinburnu Port
The Amphipod (Crustacea) Species at the Coasts of Bozcaada Island (NE Aegean Sea)
Herdem Aslan, Hüsamettin Balkis
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology 34118 Vezneciler, Istanbul-Turkey.
This study was carried out to determine amphipod species of Bozcaada Island (NE Aegean Sea) and some ecological features within their habitat. Samples were collected from 32 stations, situated at the depth of 0.5-35 m by dredge, drift net, bottom trawl and scoop net during 2000- 2001 years. In the investigation 46 amphipod species belonging to 16 families were determined. Microdeutopus similis Myers, 1977 was reported for the first time from the entire Turkish Seas. Moreover, Apherusa mediterranea Chevreux, 1911 was a new record for the Aegean Sea coasts of Turkey.
Keywords: Amphipod, Bozcaada Island, Aegean Sea
Distribution of parasite fauna of chub mackerel in Aegean and Mediterranean Sea
Istanbul University, Faculty of Aquatic Products, Laleli 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
This investigation was carried out near Gökçeada (Aegean Sea) and Antalya (Mediterranean) between May 2000-September 2000 , to search for the parasite fauna of Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus (Houttyn, 1780)). A total 232 Chub Mackerel were caught. 9 parasite species, 4 belonging to ectoparasites, 5 to endoparasites, were found near Gökçeada. 5 parasite species, 2 belonging to ectoparasites, 3 to endoparasites, were found near Antalya. The parasites found were Myxobolus sp. (Myxosporae), Octosoma scombri (Monogea), Ectenurus lepidus, Opechona ollsoni, Lepidopedon elongatum (Digenea), Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum aduncum (Nematoda), Lernaea sp. , Hatschekia sp. (Copepoda) near Gölçeada, Myxobolus sp., Octosoma scombri, Ectenurus lepidus, Lepidopedon elongatum, Anisakis simplex near Antalya.
Keywords: Chub mackerel, parasite, Aegean Sea, Mediterranean
Caffeine in the stream, well and sea water of Yalova, Marmara Sea, Turkey
Kasim Cemal Güven, Kartal Çetintürk
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34116- Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Caffeine is a land-based pollutant. It was detected in Taşköprü stream, a well in Yalova city and Sea of Marmara. Caffeine is existed in the thea and metabolized after taken into human body in ratio of 99%. The source of caffeine in aquatic system is the unconsumed thea discharged to the stream and sea. This is the main cause for the poIIution of environment. Its identification in marine indicates anthropogenic inputs.
Keywords: Caffeine, stream, well, seawater, Yalova, Marmara Sea
The effects of pollution on the distribution of phytoplankton in the surface water of the Golden Horn
Seyfettin Tas, Erdogan Okus
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Muskule Sok. Vefa 34116 Istanbul, TURKEY
In this study, to reach the interactions between pollution and phytoplankton at the Golden Horn, the surface water samples collected at January-December 1995 period are investigated to aspect the phytoplankton qualitative and quantitatively. During the study period, 24 phytoplankton species (16 diatoms and 8 dinoflagellates ) were determined. At the entrance of the Golden Horn (Station 1) 22 species were determined but at the inner part (Station 5) only 8 species were determined in the whole of the year. The phytoplankton quantity (2 x 103 cells/L on an average) were in low concentrations in general and reached the highest value (146 x 106 cells/L) at July. During that increase Leptocylindrus minimus, a member of centric diatoms, was dominant with 95% ratio. Dinoflagellate species concentration reached the highest value (1679 cells/L) when Noctulica scintillans, a member of this group, was dominant with 93% ratio at November. According to the results of this study, the surface water phytoplankton community of the Golden Horn,. is quite poor at the point of species and individual quantity. That is explained; the phytoplankton species and individual quantity dt.’Crease from the entrance to inner side of the Golden Horn vice versa pollution increase at the same direction during this study period.
Keywords: The Golden Horn, phytoplankton, pollution
Ostracoda (crustacea) fauna of the Black Sea coasts of Istanbul
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459, Vezneciler, Istanbul, TURKEY
The Black Sea having unique properties is located on the north of the Anatolia mainland. Its brackish water characteristics, combined with the currents from the Bosphorus strait and fresh water flow from various rivers leads to a wide ecologic spectrum. In this research a total of 19 stations were sampled in November 2000 and May 2001. 40 species from 19 genera have been identified, among these species 15 of them Leptocythere macella, L. ramosa, L. lagunae, L. rara, Loxoconcha minima, L. littoralis, Hiltermannicythere rubra, Heterocythereis albomaculata, Cytheroma variabilis, Semicytherura amorpha, Semicytherura rarecostata, Xestoleberis margaritea, Paradoxostoma aff. triste, Argilloecia acuminata and A. minor are new records for recent ostracoda fauna of Turkey.
Keywords: Black Sea, ostracoda, crustacea, systematic
Check-list of the brachyuran crabs of the Turkish Straits System
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology 34118, Istanbul, TURKEY
The aim of this study is to provide a check-list of brachyuran crab species existent in the Turkish Straits System according to available data. It has been determined that 46 brachyuran crab species belonging to 15 families exist in the Turkish Straits System, as a result of the investigation of the studies in that system. These species were presented in a table.
Keywords: Brachyura, Turkish Straits System, zoobenthos
A study on the fishes of Bozcaada Island (North Aegean Sea)
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34118 Vezneciler, Istanbul, TURKEY
This research was carried out in the shore and offshore of Bozcaada Island to new contributions to the recognition of the fish fauna of to the Aegean Sea. Fish specimens examined in this study were obtained from 17 stations between the years 2000 and 2001, from depths of 5 to 140 m, by using trawl, drift net and dredge. A total of 92 species belonging to 44 families were identified. From these species, 15 belong to Chondrichthyes and 77 to Osteichthyes. These species are new records for Bozcaada neritic waters of North Aegean Sea.
Keywords: Fish species, Bozcaada Island, Aegean Sea