A study on some physico-chemical properties of Marmaris Bay (Southern Aegean, Turkey)
Şeyma Merve Kaymaz, Nedim Özdemir
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Fisheries, Mugla Sıtkı Kocman University, Mugla, TURKEY
Marmaris Bay is in the area where the southwest corner of Turkey meets the Mediterranean Sea and Aegean Sea. It is a semi-enclosed bay and one of the popular tourism destinations of Turkey. To understand the spatial and temporal variation of water quality in the bay, this study was carried out between May 2011 and April 2012. Seven points were strategically selected and selected physico-chemical parameters in water samples were measured monthly. The ranges of these parameters found as (BDL: below detection limit); temperature: 14.31 to 27.16°C, pH: 7.40-8.93, dissolved oxygen: 4.20-8.50 mgL-1, electrical conductivity: 52.160-59.540 μScm-1, salinity: 34.34-39.84‰, nitrite nitrogen: BDL-0.50 mgL-1, nitrate nitrogen: BDL-30.00 mgL-1, ammonium nitrogen: BDL-2.50 mgL-1, phosphate ion: BDL-4.00 mgL-1, and chlorophyll-a: 0.03-2.44 mgL-1. The results revealed that deterioration in water quality and pollution occurred mostly during the peak period of tourism in summer.
Keywords: Marmaris Bay, water quality, physico-chemical parameters, environment factor, tourism activities
Anonymous (1995) Environmental Problems of Turkey 95. Türkiye Çevre Vakfı Yayınları, Ankara, Turkey (in Turkish).
Anonymous (2011) 2011 Administrative Annual Report. Marmaris Municipality, Mugla, Turkey (in Turkish).
Anonymous (2012) 2012 Administrative Annual Report. Marmaris Municipality, Mugla, Turkey (in Turkish).
Anonymous (2013) Water Quality and Biological Research Report of Marmaris Bay. Marmaris Çevreciler Derneği Yayınları, Marmaris, Turkey (in Turkish).
APHA (2005) Standart Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington.
Büyükışık, B., Benli, H. A., İçmer, G. T., Aydın, G. H., Erduren, E. (2001) Phytoplankton growth and some affecting factors in Gökova Bay. IV. National Ecology and Environment Congress Booklet, 5-8 October 2001, Bodrum, pp. 17-24 (in Turkish).
Chamber of Shipping (2012) Maritime Sector Report. İstanbul-2013, (in Turkish).
Chamber of Shipping (2017) Maritime Sector Report. İstanbul-2018, (in Turkish).
Cirik, S., Cirik, Ş. (2005) Limnology (Coursebook), Ege University Fisheries Faculty Publications, İzmir, Turkey (in Turkish).
Çoker, T. (2017) Gobiidae larval (2011-2012) diversity, abundance and distribution in Marmaris Bay. Yunus Araştırma Bülteni 2017(2): 177-192.
Davis, M.L., Cornwell, D.A. (1991) Introduction to Environmental Engineering (eds., Davis, M. L., Cornwell, D. A) Mc Graww-Hill International Editions, Chemical Engineering Series, New York.
Demirak, A. (2003) Research of Pollution in Güllük Bay of Muğla Province PhD Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey (in Turkish).
Egemen, Ö., Sunlu, U. (1996) Water Quality (Coursebook), Ege University Publication, İzmir, Turkey (in Turkish).
EPA (1986) Quality Criteria for Water. Washington DC: Office of Water Regulations and Standards. Available at
https://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi/00001MGA.PDF?Dockey=00001MGA.PDF (Accessed 18 Jun 2019)
EPA (2006) Voluntary Estuary Monitoring Manual, Chapter 11: pH and Alkalinity, 11-1-11-10p. Available at https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/ files/2015-09/documents/2007_04_09_estuaries_monitoruments_manual.pdf
(Accessed 17 Jun 2019)
EPA (2012) Conductivity. In Water: Monitoring and Assessment. Available at https://archive.epa. gov/water /archive / web/html/vms59.html (Accessed 02 Oct2018)
Ercan, D. M., Ontas, C., Ozdemir, N. (2013) Levels of bacterial pollution in surface waters of Marmaris Bay in Turkey. 40th CIESM Congress, Marseilles, France. Available at http://www.ciesm.org/online/archives/abstracts/pdf/40/PG
_0869.pdf (Accessed 12 May 2019)
Eryılmaz, M., Eryılmaz Yücesoy, F. (2008) Oceanography and submarine sediment distribution in the Marmaris: Kaş region of Southwest Turkey. Micropaleontology 54(3-4): 187-197.
Grasshoff, K., Erhardt, M., Kremling, K. (1983) Determination of nutrients. In: Methods of Seawater Analysis (eds., Grasshoff, K., Erhardt, M., Kremling, K), 2nd Ed., Verlag Chemie GMBH, Weinheim, pp. 125-188.
Gündoğdu, V., Özkan, E. Y. (2006) Measurement network design and evaluation of water quality variables of Küçük Menderes River. Ege Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Dergisi 23(3-4): 361-369 (in Turkish).
Han, L., Jordan, J.K. (2005) Estimating and mapping chlorophyll-a concentration in Pensacola Bay, Florida using Landsat ETM+ data. Int J Remote Sens 26 (23): 5245-5254.
Ivanoff, A. (1972) Introduction A I’Oceanographie. Tome 1, Vuibert-Paris.
Karpuzcu, M. (1984) Introduction of Environmental Engineering Course Book İ.T.Ü. Publications, İ.T.Ü. Library No:1556, İstanbul (in Turkish).
Krom, M. D., Kress, N., Brenner, S., Gordon, L.I. (1991) Phosphorus limitation of primary productivity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Limnology Oceanography 36(3): 424-432.
Koçak, F., Küçüksezgin, F. (2000) Sessile fouling organisms and environmental parameters in the marinas of the Turkish Aegean coasts. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 29: 149-157.
Küçüksezgin, F., Balcı, A., Kontas, A., Altay, O. (1995) Distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in the Aegean Sea. Oceanologica Acta 18(3): 343-352.
Miller, R. L., Bradford, W. L., Peters, N.E. (1988) Specific Conductance: Theoretical Considerations and Application to Analytical Quality Control. In U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper; 2311. Avaliable at https://pdfs.semantic scholar.org/6068/66088a6869a6d6b2319273fe1850bd079059.pdf?_ga=2.120723659.217786242.1562765707-500862046.1562765707(Accessed 22.09.2018)
Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (2013) Directorate general of environmental management, Department of Marine and Coastal Management, The Blue Card Became Widely Available at http://mavikart. cevre.gov.tr/ en/Haber. aspx?ID=15 (Accessed 17 Jun 2019)
Ministry of Environment and Urbanization (2016) The Blue Card System. Available at http://mavikart.cevre.gov.tr /brosurler/blue_card_English.pdf (Accessed 17 Jun 2019).
Official Gazette (Resmi Gazete) (2004) The Water Pollution Control Regulations, 25687, 31.12.2004 (in Turkish).
Pahlow, M., Reibesell, U. (2000) Temporal trends in deep oceans redfield ratios. Science 287(5454): 831-833.
Parsons, T. R., Maita, Y., Lalli, C.M. (1984) A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
Ritchie, J.C., Zimba, P.V., Evezitt, J.H. (2003) Remote sensing techniques to assess water quality, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens 69(6): 695-704.
Ross, D.A. (1979) Opportunities and Uses of the Oceans. Springer-Verlag, New York, Heildberg, Berlin.
Samsunlu, A. (2005) Chemistry of Environmental Engineering. Birsen Publisher, Eren Press, (in Turkish).
Samsunlu, A., Akça, L. (1999) Coastal pollution and mitigation measures in Turkey. Water Science Technology 39(8): 13-20.
Samsunlu, A., Akça, L., Uslu, O. (1995) Problems related to an existing marine outfall: Marmaris – an example. Water Science Technology 32(2): 225-231.
Shaffer, G. (1986) Phospate pumps and shuttles in the Black Sea. Nature 321(6069): 515-517.
Stanev, E.V. (1989) Numerical modelling of the circulation and the hydrogen sulphide and oxygen distribution in the Black Sea. Deep Sea Research 36(7): 1053-1065.
The Bank of Provinces (İller Bankası) (1979) Marmaris Marine Outfall Research and Application Project, First Progress Report, vol 2, in situ Measurements, 1980, İzmir (in Turkish).
Tuğrul, S., Sunay, M., Baştürk, Ö., Balkas, T.İ. (1986) The Izmit Bay Case Study. In: The Role of the Oceans as a Waste Disposal Option (ed., Kullenberg, G.), D. Reidel Publ. Comp.
UNEP/MAP (2012) State of the Mediterranean Marine and Coastal Environment, UNEP/MAP – Barcelona Convention, Athens. Available at: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/turkey/docs/Publications/EnvSust/akdenizrapor.pdf (Accessed 19 Jun 2019).
USGS Office of Water Quality (2013) Turbidity – Units of Measurement. In USGS Oregon Water Science Center. Avaliable at http://or.water.usgs.gov/grapher/fnu.html (Accessed 02 Oct 2018).
Uslu, O., Terkman, A. (1987) Water Quality and Control. In: Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Directorate General of Environment Publications Education Series 1, Ankara, (in Turkish).