Cetaceans in the coastal waters of southern Romania: initial assessment of abundance, distribution, and seasonal trends
Romulus-Marian Paiu, Bogdan Olariu, Angelica-Ioela Paiu, Mihaela-Elena Mirea Cândea, Anca-Maria Gheorghe, Dumitru Murariu
Mare Nostrum NGO, Bogdan Voda Street 16, Constanta, 900613, ROMANIA
Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 91-95, Bucharest, R-050095, ROMANIA
Faculty of Geography, University of Bucharest, 1st Nicolae Balcescu blvd., Bucharest 010041, ROMANIA
This paper presents the results of two vessel surveys in 2017 (spring and summer) in order to estimate cetacean abundance and distribution in Romanian Black Sea waters following distance sampling methods. Eight transects, from east to west, perpendicular on the shore line with a total length of 211.95 km, were designed and executed in sea conditions ≤ Beaufort 4 in an area of 1063 km2with coverage of 39.6%. In total there were 275 sightings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus ponticus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis ponticus) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena relicta) recorded. Both European Union (EU) Marine Strategy Framework Directive and Habitats Directive require Member States to monitor and maintain at favourable conservation status those species identified to be in need of protection, including all cetaceans. This study provides the baseline data on the Black Sea cetaceans in Romanian waters.
Keywords: Black Sea, cetaceans, abundance, distribution, line transect sampling, vessel survey
Akaike, H. (1974) A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control 19(6): 716-723.
Birkun, A. (2008) The state of cetacean populations. In: State of Environment Report 2001-2006/7, 2008-3 (ed. T. Oguz), Publication of the Commission on the Protection of the Black Sea against Pollution, Istanbul, pp.365-395.
Birkun, Jr., A., Northridge, S.P., Willsteed, E.A., James, F.A., Kilgour, C., Lander, M., Fitzgerald, G.D. (2014) Studies for Carrying Out the Common Fisheries Policy: Adverse Fisheries Impacts on Cetacean Populations in the Black Sea. Final report to the European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, 348 p.
Buckland, S.T., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Laake, J.L., Borchers, D.L., Thomas, L. (2001) Introduction to Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.
Dick, D.M., Hines, E.M. (2011) Using distance sampling techniques to estimate bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) abundance at Turneffe Atoll, Belize. Marine Mammal Science 27: 606-621.
ESRI (2019) How Kernel Density works. Available at: https://pro.arcgis.com/ en/pro-app/tool-reference/spatial-analyst/how-kernel-density-works.htm. (accessed 4 Jul. 2019).
Fewster, R.M., Buckland, S.T., Burnham, K.P., Borchers, D.L., Jupp, P.E., Laake, J.L., Thomas, L. (2009) Estimating the encounter rate variance in distance sampling. Biometrics 65: 225-236.
Gladilina, E., Shpak, O., Serbin, V., Kryukova, A., Glazov, D., Gol’din, P. (2018) Individual movements between local coastal populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the northern and eastern Black Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 98(2): 223-229.
Heinemann, D. (1981) A rangefinder for pelagic bird censusing. Journal of Wildlife Management 45: 489-493.
Hiby, R., Hammond, P.S. (1989) Survey techniques for estimating the abundance of cetaceans. Reports of the International Whaling Commission 11: 47-80.
Kleinenberg, S.E. (1956) Mammals of the Black and Azov Seas: Research Experience for Biology and Hunting. USSR Academy of Science Publish House, Moscow, Russia, 288 p. (in Russian).
Kopaliani, N., Gurielidze, Z., Devidze, N., Ninua, L., Dekanoidze, D., Javakhishvili, Z., Paposhvili, N., Qerdikoshvili, N. (2015) Monitoring of Black Sea Cetacean in Georgian Waters. A report available at https://chm.cbd.int/ database/record?documentID=241761 (accessed on 20 May 2019).
Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T. (2003) Incorporating covariates into standard line transect analysis. Biometrics 59: 924-935.
Murariu, D. (2005) Mammalia. In: Cartearoșie a Vertebratelor din România. (eds., Botnariuc, N., Tatole, V.) National Natural History Museum “GrigoreAntipa”, Curtea Veche Trading SRL, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 59-61 (in Romanian).
Paiu, R.M. (2012) Annual Report of the Monitoring and Conservation of Black Sea Cetacean Program. Mare Nostrum NGO, Constanta, Romania (in Romanian).
Paiu, R.M. (2016) Annual Report of the Monitoring and Conservation of Black Sea Cetacean Program. Mare Nostrum NGO, Constanta, Romania (in Romanian).
Paiu, R.M. (2017) Annual Report of the Monitoring and Conservation of Black Sea Cetacean Program. Mare Nostrum NGO, Constanta, Romania (in Romanian).
Paiu, R.M., Fujioka, E., Paiu, A.I., Mirea-Cândea, M.E., Gheorghe, A.M., Timofte, C. (2019) Integration of cetacean monitoring data into databases such as obis-seamap, to advance spatially-explicit ecological assessments. Marina RRI-SIS Conference (in press).
Paiu, R.M., Mirea-Cândea, M.E. (2016) Correlation of cetacean stranding events between 2010-2014 at the Romanian coast. Recherche Marine 46: 144-155.
Paiu, R.M., Paiu, A.I., Mirea-Cândea, M.E., Gheorghe, A.M. (2017) Cetacean strandings between 2010-2016 at the coast of Romania. Recherche Marine 47: 222-231.
Panigada, S., Lauriano, G., Burt, L., Pierantonio, N., Donovan, G. (2011) Monitoring winter and summer abundance of cetaceans in the Pelagos Sanctuary (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) through aerial surveys. PLOS ONE 6(7): e22878.
Radu, G., Anton, E., Nenciu, M., Spînu, A.D. (2013) Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the Romanian marine area. Recherche Marine 43: 320-341.
Reeves, R., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. (2006) The Status and Distribution of Cetaceans in the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea. IUCN Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Malaga, Spain, 137 p.
Silverman, B.W. (1998) Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis Vol 26. Chapman and Hall/CRC, London, U.K.
Thomas, L., Laake, J.L., Rexstad, E., Strindberg, S., Marques, F.F.C., Buckland, S.T., Borchers, D.L., Anderson, D.R., Burnham, K.P., Burt, M.L., Hedley, S.L., Pollard, J.H., Bishop, J.R.B., Marques, T.A. (2010) Distance 7.0. Release 1, Research Unit for Wildlife Population Assessment, University of St. Andrews, UK. http://www.ruwpa.st-and.ac.uk/distance/, 2010 (accessed on 18 Jan. 2017).
Tonay, M., Dede, A., Öztürk, A.A., Demircan, M.D., Fernández, A. (2012) Unusual mass mortality of cetaceans on the coast of the Turkish Western Black Sea in Summer 2009. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 18(1): 67-75.
Tzalkin, V.I. (1940) The data on biology of the Azov and Black Sea harbour porpoise (Phocaena phocaena relicta Abel). Zoologichesky Zhurnal 19(1): 160-171 (in Russian).
Vishnyakova, K., Gol’din, P. (2014) Seasonality of strandings and bycatch of harbour porpoises in the Sea of Azov: The effects of fisheries, weather conditions, and life history. ICES Journal of Marine Science 73(3): 981-991.