Air pollution of hydrocarbons exhausted from vehicle in tunnels, bridges of Istanbul and detection of 3-nitrophthalic in seawater near the side of boat
Selin Cumalı, Kasım Cemal Güven
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa, Istanbul ,TURKEY
The air pollution due to exhausted gas from vehicles was studied in tunnels, bridges in Istanbul city and the contribution of exhausted gas from boat to the seawater in Golden Horn. The component of hydrocarbons of fuels and exhausted gas from vehicles was also compared. The gas samples were collected in tubes containing Tenax GR or activated charcoal adsorbent. They were extracted with dichloro-methane and analysis performed by UVF, GC/MS and HPLC. The petroleum hydrocarbon amounts in gas exhausted were from diesel car II 89.40 µg/m3, from car I 13.43 µg/m3, from normal gasoline car 41.43 µg/m3 and from super gasoline car 32.10 µg/m3. The highest hydrocarbon pollution was found in Haşim İşcan tunnel and hydrocarbon amount ranged as 5.30-11.00 µg/m3. During the analysis over 22 aliphatic, 23 aromatic hydrocarbon and nicotine were identified in Haşim İşcan tunnel. In this area carcinogenic, aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives and toluene were detected. The highest hydrocarbon pollution was found on Atatürk and Galata bridges as 9.65 µg/m3 and 8.36 µg/m3 respectively. For the first time a new nitro-derivate, 3-nitrophthalic acid was detected in seawater near the exhaust pipe of boat and it was proved by GC/MS and HPLC analyses. The adsorbent capacity of Tenax GR with charcoal compared and Tenax GR adsorbed better than charcoal.
Keywords: Istanbul city, tunnels, bridges, hydrocarbon pollution, seawater, 3-nitrophthalic acid