Assesment of dissolved oxygen in coastal waters of Benghazi, Libya
Joel Prashant Jack, Amal Tahir Abdsalam, Naima Saad Khalifa
Department of Environment, Faculty of Public Health, Post Box: 18251 Al- Arab Medical University, Benghazi, LIBYA
Study was conducted regularly from December 2008 till March 2009 in three habitats in Benghazi coast. The water parameters were taken into consideration and sampling was conducted on surface waters and 30 cm below in the coastal waters by using digital portable meters. Estimation of solid waste material present in the coast was taken to correlate the pollutants present in coastal waters and its influence on dissolved oxygen. A total of 106 samples are sampled and analyzed in three different habitats during December 2008 until March 2009. Caria 56 (52.83%) followed by Zilayana 31 (29.24%) and thirdly Sabre 19 (17.92%). The difference of sampling is because of varied reasons and the available facilities at the site of sampling. Table’s 1-17 shows range, mean, standard deviation and coefficient of variance for parameters like water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH. Finally, the pollutants in the beach are dominated by plastic in all the three habitats with 36.01% in Zilayana, 33. 47% in Caria and 54.20% in Sabre. Finally it is concluded from the studies that, dissolved oxygen levels will depend on physiochemical parameters, especially temperature, salinity and pH. In addition to that, presence of large amount of plastic and other disposals may pose a severe threat to coastal ecosystem in turn increasing the surface temperatures and over bloom in turn will have an impact on dissolved oxygen and pH.
Keywords: Dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity, temperature, pH, pollutants
Aiken, D.E. and Waddy, S.L. (1990). Temperature and spring photoperiod requirements for spawning in the American Lobster Homarus americanus J. Shellfish Res. 1: 41-43.
Boesch, D.F. (2008). Global warming and coastal dead zones. National Wetland Newsletter 30: 4.
Boesch, D.F. (2002). Challenges and opportunities for science in reducing overnutrient enrichment of coastal ecosystem. Estuaries 25: 744-758.
Brower, J.E., Zar, J.H. and Von Ende, C.N. (1997). Field and laboratory methods for general ecology. 4 th ed. WCB McGraw-Hill. Boston.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment: Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the protection of aquatic life: Dissolved Oxygen (Marine) (1999) Publication No. 1299.
Chen, C.T.A. (2008). Effects of climate change on marine ecosystem. Fisheries for Global Welfare and Environment. 5th World Fisheries Congress: 307-316.
Conley, D.J., Cartensen, J., Ertebjerg, G., Christensen, P.B., Dalsgaard, T., Hansen, J.L.S. and Josefson, A.B. (2007). Long- term changes and impacts of hypoxia in Danish coastal waters. Ecological Applications 17:165-184.
Davis, J.C. Minimal dissolved oxygen requirements of aquatic life with emphasis on Canadian species. 1975 (a). A Review J. Fish Res. Board Can. 32: 2295-2332
Davis, J.C. (1975b). Waterborne dissolved oxygen requirements and criteria with particular emphasis on the Canadian environment. National Research Council of Canada Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality. Report No 3, NRCC 14100.
Diaz, R.J. and Rosenberg, R. (1995). Marine benthic fauna: A review of its ecological effects and the behavioural responses of benthic macrofauna. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 33: 245-303.
EOS Transaction American Geophysical Union: Trends in Marine Dissolved Oxygen: Implications for ocean circulation changes and the carbon budget. 2003EOS 84: 197-204.
Hughes, G.M. and Ballintijin, C.M. (1968). Electromyography of the respiratory muscles and gill water flow in the dragonet. J. Exp. Biol. 49: 583-602.
Hays, G.C., Richardson, A.J. and Robinson, C. (2005). Climate change and marine plankton. Trends in Ecol. Evol. 20: 6.
Harley, C.D.G., Hughes, A.R., Hultgren, K.M., Miner, B.G., Sorte, C.J.B., Thornber, C.S., Rodriguez, L.F., Tomanek, L. and Williams, S.L. (2006). The impacts of climate change in coastal marine system. Ecological Letters 9: 228- 241.
Halim, A.M.A., Khair, A.E.M, Fahmy, M.A., Shridah, M.A. (2007). Environmental Assessment on the Aqaba Gulf coastal waters, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research. Vol 33: 1-14.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007).Climate Change Synthesis Report. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York.
Joel, P.J., Ghaweel, I., Naas, A. (2009). Environment impact assessment of Lesser-known creek in Benghazi. J. Black Sea/ Med Env. Vol. 16 (in press).
Kaplan, D.M., Largier, J.L., Navarrete, S., Guinez, R. and Castilla, J.S. (2003). Large diurnal temperature fluctuations in the near shore water column. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 57: 385-398
Kuwae, T., Kamio, K., Inoue, T., Miyoshi, E. and Uchiyama, Y. (2006). Oxygen exchange flux between sediment and water in an intertidal sandflat, measured in situ by the eddy-correlation method. Marine Ecology Progress Series 307: 59-68
Levings, C.D. (1980). Demersal and benthic communities in Howe Sound basin and their responses to dissolved oxygen deficiency. Can.Tech. Res.Fish. Aquatic Sci No 951. National Land and Water Resources Audit (NLWRA): Australian Catchment River and Estuary Assessment 2002. Vol1 NLWRA Common Wealth of Australia.
Rosenberg, R., Agrenius, S., Hellman, B., Nilsson, H.C. and Norling, K. (2002). Recovery of benthic habitats and fauna in a Swedish fjord following improved oxygen conditions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. Vol. 234: 43-53.
Topping, G. (1976). Sewage and the sea. In. Marine pollution. Academic press. New York.
Turner, R.E., Rabalais, N.N. and Justic, D. (2008). Gulf of Mexico hypoxia: alternate states and legacy. Env. Sci. Tech. 42: 2323-2327.