Metal levels in biota from the Southern Black Sea, Turkey
Nuray Balkis, Abdullah Aksu, Hakan Hiçsönmez
Department of Chemical Oceanography, Institute of Marine Science and Management, Istanbul University, 34134-00, Vefa Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul Province National Education Directorate, TURKEY
In this study, toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg and As) bioaccumulations in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis), fish (Merlangius merlangus euxinus) and whelk (Rapana venosa) were researched along the Southern Black Sea Shelf in 2009. Generally, Pb and Cd contents were higher than the critical limits set by the Turkish Ministry of Environment for Aquatic Products (1 µg g-1 wet wt and 0.1 µg g-1 wet wt, respectively) and European countries (2.0 µg g-1 , UNEP, 1985). They showed increases towards the eastern end of the shelf. As concentrations were also observed higher than the critical limits set by the Turkish Ministry of Environment for Aquatic Products (1.0 µg g-1 wet wt) at Terkos, Samsun and Ordu. In contrast, Hg levels were found lower than the critical limits set by the Turkish Ministry of Environment for Aquatic Products (0.5 µg g-1 wet wt) along the shelf.
Keywords: Black Sea, metal, mussel, fish, whelk
Aksu, A., Balkis, N., Taskin, O.S., Ersan, M.S. (2011) Toxic Metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) and Organochlorine Residue Levels in Hake (Merluccius merluccius) from the Marmara Sea, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assesment 182(1-4): 509-521.
Ayas, Z., Kolankaya, D. (1996) Accumulation of some heavy metals in various environments and organisms at Göksu Delta, Türkiye, 1991-1993. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 56: 65-72.
Basturk, O., Yakushev, E., Tugrul, S., Salihoglu, I. (1999) Characteristic chemical features and biogeochemical cycles in the Black Sea. In: Environmental Degradation of the Black Sea: Challenges and Remedies, (eds:, Beşiktepe, Ü., Ünlüata, A.S., Bologa, NATO Science Series/ Second Environmental Security 56: 43-57.
Ergül, H.A., Topcuoglu, S., Olmez, E., Kırbasoglu, C. (2008) Heavy metals in sinking particles and bottom sediments from eastern Turkish coast of the Black Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 78: 396-402.
Förstner, U., Witmann, G.T.W. (1981) Metal Pollution in the Environment. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg New York: Springer, 486p.
Han, X.F., Banin, A., Su, Y., Monts, L.D., Plodinec, J.M., Kingery, L.W. (2002) Industrial age anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals into the pedosphere. Naturwissen-schaften 89: 497-504.
Hu, H. (2000) Exposure to metals. Prim. Care 27(4): 983-996.
Kayhan, F., Balkis, N., Aksu, A. (2006) Arsenic (As) levels of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from İstanbul fish market. Ekoloji 15, 61: 1-5 (in Turkish)
Kayhan, F., Gulsoy, N., Balkıs, N., Yuce, R. (2007) Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) levels of Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Lamarck, 1819) from Bosphorus, İstanbul, Turkey. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10(6): 915-919.
Kucuksezgin, F., Altay, O., Uluturhan, E., Kontas, A. (2001) Trace metal and organpchlorine residue levels in red mullet (Mullus barbatus) from Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey. Research Note. Wat. Res. 35(9): 2327-2332.
Oguz, T., Tugrul, S., Kıdeys, A., Ediger, V., Kubilay, N. (2004) Pysical and Biogeochemical Characteristics of the Black Sea (28, S). In: The Sea (eds., Robinson, A.R., Brink, K.H.) President and Fellows of Harvard College, 1331-1369
Ozsoy, E., Unluata, U. (1997) Oceanography of the Black Sea: a review of some recent results. Earth Seci. Rev. 42: 231-272.
Pempcowiac, J., Sikora, A., Biernacka, E. (1999) Specification of heavy metals in marine sediments, their bioaccumulation by mussels. Chemosphere 39: 313-321.
Topcuoglu, S., Kırbasoglu, C., Gungor, N. (2002) Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from Turkish Coast of the Black Sea, 1997-1998. Environment International 27: 521-526.
Topcuoglu, S., Guven, K.C., Balkis, N., Kırbasoglu, Ç. (2003) Heavy metal monitoring of marine algae from the Turkish Coast of the Black Sea, 1998-2000. Chemosphere 52: 1683-1688.
UNEP (1982) Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, No: 14.
UNEP (1984) Determination of Total Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu in Selected Marine Organisms by Flameless AAS. Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, No: 11, Rev.1.
UNEP (1985) GESAMP: Cadmium, lead and tin the Marine Environment. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies, No: 56.
UNEP (1991) Sampling of Selected Marine Organisms and Sample Preparation for the Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons. Reference Methods for Marine Pollution Studies, No: 12 Rev.2.
Unluata, U., Oguz, T., Latif, M.A. Ozsoy, E. (1989) On the physical oceanography of Turkish Straits. In: The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits (Eds., L.J. Pratt), NATO ASI Series, Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 25-60