Morphological identification of parasites found in the stomach contents of bycaught striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Turkish Eastern Mediterranean Sea coast
Işıl Aytemiz, Ayhan Dede, Erdem Danyer, Arda M. Tonay
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, 34320, Avcılar-Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), 34820, Beykoz-Istanbul, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, 34470, Laleli-Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, 34320, Avcılar-Istanbul, TURKEY
One of the causes for major health problems in marine mammals is parasites in their digestive systems. These parasites are common and they result in various pathological disorders such as ulceration, obstructions, gastric and intestinal bleeding in cetaceans. In Turkey there have been studies on feeding ecology of cetaceans; however there is insufficient information on parasites, including those found in stomachs. In this study, macroparasites were collected and examined from the stomach contents of six striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) bycaught during the swordfish fishing off the Turkish coastal town Fethiye in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea in 2003 and 2004. All stomachs were infected by nematodes. These nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol and examined and measured after cleaning and transparation by lactophenol. They were identified as Anisakis spp., Contraceucum spp., Pseudoterronova spp. and Steneurus minor. Different larval forms were observed. This is the first study on parasites found in the stomach contents of striped dolphins in Eastern Mediterranean. It is, however, only a preliminary one, thus more samples should be collected and examined to understand the cetacean parasites in the Turkish waters.
Keywords: Stenella coeruleoalba, Eastern Mediterranean, digestive system parasite, Anisakidea
Aznar, F.J., Fognani, P., Balbuena, J.A., Pietrobelli, M., Raga, A. (2006) distribution of Pholeter gastrophilus (Digenea) within the stomach of four odontocete species: the role of the diet and digestive physiology of hosts. Parasitology 133: 369-380.
Berland, B. (1961) Nematodes from some Norwegian marine fishes. Sarsia 2:4- 6.
Chaligiannisa, I., Lalle, M.B., Poziob, E., Sotiraki, S. (2012) Anisakidae infection in fish of the Aegean Sea. Veterinary Parasitology 184(1-2):362-366.
Cornaglia, E., Rebora, L., Gili, C., Guardo, Di G. (2000) Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies on cetaceans found stranded on the coast of Italy between 1990 and 1997. J. Vet. Med. A. 47:129-142.
Dailey, M.D. (2001) Parasitic diseases In: CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine. Second Edition. (eds., A.L. Dierauf, F.M.D. Gulland), CRC Press, Florida, Chapter 18, 361-363pp.
Danyer, E., Aytemiz, I., Tonay, A. M., Dede, A., Akkaya, H. (2010) Preliminary study of identification of macroscopic parasites in the stomach content of the harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) bycaught and stranded in the Turkish Western Black Sea. In: Abstract Book of 12th International Veterinary Medicine Students Research Congress, 6-8May 2010, Istanbul University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul, 74-75pp.
Dede, A. (2008) Report of the project of determination of cetacean mortality in Fethiye region. Istanbul University IU Scientific Research Projects no: 105/15052003, Istanbul, 28p. (in Turkish).
Delyamure, S.L. (1968) The Helminth Fauna of Marine Mammals in the Light of Their Ecology and Phylogeny. K.I. Skrjabin (Ed.), Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 208-239pp.
Dhermain, F., Soulier, L., Bompar, J.M. (2002) Natural mortality factors affecting cetaceans in the Mediterranean Sea, ACCOBAMS Report, Section 15, 4-5pp.
Duignan, P.J., Geraci R.J., Raga J.A., Calzada N. (1992) Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 242- 248.
Fernández, M., Agustí, C., Aznar, F.J., Raga J.A. (2003) Gastro intestinal helminthes of risso’s dolphin Grampus griseus from the Western Mediterranean. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 55: 73-76.
Fridera, E.S., Amielb, S., Elasarb, M.R., Kress, N. (2002) Risso’s dolphin (Grampus griseus) stranding on the coast of Israel (eastern Mediterranean). Autopsy results and trace metal concentrations. The Science of the Total Environment 295:157-166.
Gibson, D.I., Harris, E.A., Bray, R.A., Jepson, P.D., Kuiken, T., Baker, J.R. Simpson, V.R. (1998) A survey of the helminth parasites of cetaceans stranded on the coast of England and Wales during the period 1990-1994. Journal of Zoology 244: 563-574.
Grabda, J. (1976) Studies on the life cycle and morphogenesis of Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) (Nematoda: Anisakidae) cultured in vitro. Acta Ichtiologica et Piscatoria Vol.VI, Fasc.1.
Lehnert, K., Raga, J.A., Siebert, U. (2005) Macroparasites in stranded and bycaught harbour porpoises from German and Norwegian Water. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64: 265–269.
Motta, M.R.A., Pinheiro, D.C.S.N., Vitor Luz Carvalho, V.L., Viana, D.A., Vicente, A.C.P., Iñiguez, A.M. (2008) Gastric lesions associated with the presence of Anisakis spp. Dujardin, 1845 (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in cetaceans stranded on the coast of Ceara, Brazil. Biota Neotrop. 8(2): 92-95.
Raga, J.A., Balbuena, J.A., Fernández, M. (1997) The impact of parasites on marine mammals: a review. Parasitologia 39: 293-296.
Roberts, S.M. (2003) Examination of the stomach contents from a Mediterranean sperm whale found south of Crete, Greece. Journal Marine Biology Association U.K. 83: 667-670.
Shamsi, S., Norman, R., Gasser, R., Beveridge, I. (2009) Redescription and genetic characterization of selected Contracaecum spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from various hosts in Australia. Parasitology Research 104(6): 1507–1525.
Sohn, W.M., Seol, S.Y. (1994) A human case of gastric anisakiasis by Pseudoterranova decipiens larva. Korean Journal of Parasitology 32 (1): 53-56.