The suggestion of integrated trout-crayfish culture in Turkey
Gürel Türkmen, Onur Karadal
Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, TURKEY
The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been cultured in Turkey since 1969 and Turkey has become one of the top trout producing countries in Europe with an annual production of 85,000 tons (inland+sea) amounting to 51% of the Turkish aquaculture production. Astacus leptodactylus, the narrow-clawed crayfish (popular name “Turkish crayfish”), is the native freshwater crayfish species in Turkey. Due to overfishing, pollution and the crayfish plague (Aphanomyces astaci), the total annual production of crayfish dramatically reduced from 8,000 to 320 tons between 1985 and 1991. However, in recent years (1996-2004), there has been a gradual increase of production. Aquaculture is important not only for food supply but also for purposes of restocking (including endangered species) and recreational fisheries. This study describes a suggestion which can reduce the nutrient outflow from trout farms. The basic construct is an aquatic ecosystem consisting of one or several water bodies comprising an integrated food web. Horizontal integration of trout and crayfish aquaculture represents a technically viable opportunity for aquaculture producers to reduce environmental impacts and enhancing production efficiency. The study outlines the basic principles in this integrated system.
Keywords: Oncorhynchus mykiss, Astacus leptodactylus, integrated aquaculture