Piri Reis – a pioneer of marine knowledge and marine science heritage in the seas of the Old World
Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 33720, Mersin, TURKEY
A review is made of the developments leading from marine knowledge to marine science in the seas of the ‘Old World’. Piri Reis, a technically well-equipped captain and chart maker of medieval times, was also a good observer of nature leading to important conclusions on the workings of nature. Like most other medieval figures, such contributions did not surface to gain recognition in the old world for many years, and often centuries. In particular, the efforts of Luigi Ferdinando Marsili, who actually initiated the methods of marine science that evolved into the basic science of modern oceanography, had his share of the ignorance from the establishment, but survived the centuries, as compared to Piri Reis who gave his life against bigotry, while his superior world map remained undiscovered until the beginning of the 20th century. A much overlooked set of observations reported by Piri Reis on tides is brought under light, and referenced with respect to the historical trend of development which was far behind his level.
Keywords: Piri Reis, civilization, oceanography, Turkish Straits, Black Sea, Bosphorus, Mediterranean, ecosystems
Atkinsons, G. (1935) Les Nouveaux Horizons de la Renaissance Francaise. Geneve, Droz.
Bayazıt, M., Sümer, M. (1982) Oceanographic and Hydrographic Study of the Bosphorus. İTÜ, T.B.T.A.K. Report No: 28 (in Turkish).
Braudel, F. (1996) The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. University of California Press.
Bursa, P. (2010) Fish and Fisheries in Anatolia in Antiquity. The Turkish Archaeological Institute Publications 28, 60pp. (in Turkish).
Cartwright, D. E. (1999) Tides: A Scientific History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Çeçen, K., Bayazit, M., Sümer, M., Güçlüer, S., Doğusal, M., Yüce, H. (1981) Oceanographic and Hydraulic Investigation of the Strait of İstanbul. Final Report, subrnitted to the Irrigation unit of the Scientific and Technical Research Council, İstanbul Technical University, Istanbul, 166 pp.
Deacon, M. (1982) Modern Concepts of Oceanography. Hutchinson Ross, 385 pp.
Defant, A. (1961) Physical Oceanography. Volume II. Pergamon Press, London, 598 pp.
Ertan, A. (2010) Fishing in the Bosphorus. Archaeology and Art Publications,148pp. (in Turkish).
Gill, A.E. (1982) Atmosphere-Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press, 662 pp.
Gilles, P. (1561) De Bosporo Thracio, book 3. Leuven, Gulielmum Rouillium.
Gregg, M.C., Özsoy, E. (2002) Flow, water mass changes and hydraulics in the Bosphorus. J. Geophys. Res. 107 (C3). Doi.10.1029/2000JC000485.
Gregg, M.C., Özsoy, E., Latif, M. A. (1999) Quasi-Steady exchange flow in the Bosphorus. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 83-86.
Gunnerson, C.G., Özturgut, E. (1974) The Bosphorus. In: The Black Sea – Geology, (eds., E. T. Degens, D. A. Ross), Chemistry and Biology, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, 103 pp.
Hapgood, C. (1996) Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings. Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois, 348 pp.
Harley, J.B., Woodward, D. (1987) The History Of Cartography. In: Cartography in Prehistoric Ancient and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, (ed., D. Woodward), V. 1, The University of Chicago Press, 656 pp.
Korfmann, M., Neumann, J. (1993) Subsurface countercurrent in the Bosporus already known to 6th century A. D. Byzantine fishermen. Ocean Dynamics,38(4): 189-190.
Latif, M. A., Özsoy, E., Oğuz, T., Ünlüata, Ü. (1991) Observations of the Mediterranean inflow into the Black Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 38: 711-723.
Marsili, L. F. (1681) Observations Around the Thracian Bosphorus overo Channel Constantinople, Represented in the Letter to the Sacred Royal Majesty Queen Cristina of Sweden by Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli. Nicoló Angelo Tinassi, Roma. (in Italian).
Marsigli, L. F. (1732) State of the Empire Ottoman military L’Etat Militaire de l’Empire Ottoman, Gosse, Neaulme, de Hondt, Moetjens, Den Haag u Amsterdam (Reprint Graz Akad. Druck- u Verlagsanst 1972). (in Italian).
Merz, A., Möller, L. (1928) Hydrographische Untersuchungen in Bosporus und Dardanellen, Alfred Merz. Bearb. von Lotte Möller, Berlin: E. S. Mittler &Sohn, 1 Atlas of 16 charts, 3 figures, 8 tables of sizes 47 x 39 cm and text 133 pp.
Möller, L. (1928) Alfred Merz’ hydrographische Untersuchungen im Bosphorus und Dardanellen, Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Meereskunde an der Universität Berlin, 18: 284 pp.
Özsoy, E., Di Iorio, D., Gregg M., Backhaus, J. (2001) Mixing in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea continental shelf: Observations and a model of the dense water outflow. J. Mar. Sys. 31: 99-135.
Öztürk, B. (ed.) (2010) Proceedings of the Symposium, The Marmara Sea 2010.Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, 32: 521 pp.
Pinardi, N. (2009) Measure the Sea. Luigi Ferdinando Marsili in the Aegean and in the Bosporus 1679-1680. Bononia University Press, 83 pp. (in Italian).
Sammari, C., Koutitonsky, V. G., Mahmoud, M. (2006) Sea level variability and tidal resonance in the Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia. Continental Shelf Research 26(3): 338-350.
Seydi, S. (2007) An Outline of 2000 Years of Turkish History. Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the Republic of Turkey, 128 pp.
Soffientino, B., Pilson, M. E. Q. (2005) A Special place in the history of oceanography, the Bosphorus Strait. Oceanography 18 (2): 16-23.
Sözer, A. (2013) Numerical Modeling of the Bosphorus Exchange Flow Dynamics. PhD thesis, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Mersin. (in Turkish).
Tekin, O. (2010) Fish and Fisheries in İstanbul in the Early Ages. Archaeology and Art Publications, 72 pp. (in Turkish).
Tolmazin, D. (1985) Changing coastal oceanography of the Black Sea, II. Mediterranean effluent. Prog. Oceanogr. 15: 277-316.
Ülkekul, C. (2009) A History of the Turkish Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography Studies before 1909, Admiralty, 146 pp. (in Turkish).
Ünlüata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M. A., Özsoy, E. (1990) On the physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits. In: The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, (ed., L. J. Pratt), NATO/ASI Series, Kluwer, pp. 25-60.
Zaimeche, S. (2002) The Book of Sea Lore. Foundation of Science, Technology and Civilization, Manchester, 11 pp.