Biochemical composition of some red and green seaweeds from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

Funda Turan, Senem Ozgun, Selin Sayın, Gul Ozyılmaz

Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, University of Mustafa Kemal, Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Literature, University of Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, TURKEY


The present study was aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of some red and green seaweed or macroalgae collected from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey between April-June 2013. Totally five seaweed samples, three red (JaniarubensLaurencia papillosaLaurencia obtusa) and two green (Ulva lactucaCodium fragile), were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from L. obtusa (142.94±3.24 mg g-1) whereas the lowest protein content was obtained from J. rubens (13.82±0.58 mg g-1). The carbohydrate yields of macroalgae varied from 155.23±1.79 to 643.93±4.68 mg g-1, the maximum carbohydrate concentration was recorded from green alga, C. fragile, (643.93±4.68 mg g-1) followed by green alga, U. lactuca, (506.69±9.19 mg g-1). The total phenolic contents of seaweed varied from 0.053±0.01 to 0.529±0.11 mg g-1 and the maximum phenolic substance content was recorded from L. obtusa (0.529±0.11 mg g-1). The green alga, U. lactuca, showed the highest Chlorophyll-a and carotene content (2.905±0.12 and 0.941±0.04 mg g-1 respectively) among these seaweeds.

Keywords: Biochemical composition, red seaweed, green seaweed, Iskenderun Bay

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The new location record of Cassiopea andromeda (Forsskål, 1775) from Asin Bay, Gulf of Güllük, Muğla, Aegean coast of Turkey

Elif Özgür Özbek, Bayram Öztürk

Turkish Marine Research Foundation, (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu Cad. No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


The present paper reports the northernmost location record of the “upside-down jellyfish”, Cassiopea andromeda (Forsskål 1775), (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) from the coasts of Turkey. Six individuals were observed and one of them was photographed in shallow coastal waters of Asin Bay (depth of 0.5m) in the Gulf of Güllük, on 13 and 18 October 2014.

Keywords: Cassiopea andromeda, upside-down jellyfish, alien species, Asin Bay, Gulf of Güllük, Aegean Sea

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New records of gravid female and adult male of the angular rough shark, Oxynotus centrina (Oxynotidae) from the northeastern Mediterranean

Nuri Başusta, Cemal Turan, Asiye Başusta

Fisheries Faculty, Firat University, 23119, Elazığ, TURKEY
Faculty of Marine Sciences and Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, TURKEY


In this study, two individuals of the angular rough shark Oxynotus centrina as discard by a commercial trawler were examined. Gravid female of this species was recorded for the first time from the northeastern Mediterranean. Occurrence of a gravid female and adult male of O. centrina in the northeastern Mediterranean Sea strongly indicates that there is a nursery area in this region, and mating probably occurs.

Keywords: Oxynotus centrina, reproduction, eastern Mediterranean, shark, elasmobranchs

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Nature and extent of the illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing in the Mediterranean Sea

Bayram Öztürk

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, 34470, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P. O. Box:10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY


Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is one of the serious threats for the sustainable fishing in the entire Mediterranean Sea. Due to IUU fishing, ghost fishing, by-catch, depletion of the fishing stocks, destruction of the benthic ecosystem has been reported. This issue has several social, economic and legal dimensions. Most of the coastal states have IUU fishing practices in the Mediterranean. However, most of them do not necessary record by-catch, ghost fishing and data related fisheries crimes. Purse-seine, trawl and driftnets were most common fishing gears for IUU fishing. Bluefin tuna, swordfish, among benthic species shrimps are the most common target species in the coastal states of the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the by-catch species were cetaceans, sea turtles, seabirds and sharks. Concerted actions and international cooperation are essential to halt IUU fishing. Zero tolerance should be the main concept against IUU fishing. A common black list of IUU fishermen and fishing vessels should be prepared and shared by the riparian states. National fleet management plans and Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) System should be encouraged by riparian states and GFCM in the entire basin.

Keywords: IUU fishing, Mediterranean Sea, monitoring system, fisheries regulations

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Piri Reis – a pioneer of marine knowledge and marine science heritage in the seas of the Old World

Emin Özsoy

Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 33720, Mersin, TURKEY


A review is made of the developments leading from marine knowledge to marine science in the seas of the ‘Old World’. Piri Reis, a technically well-equipped captain and chart maker of medieval times, was also a good observer of nature leading to important conclusions on the workings of nature. Like most other medieval figures, such contributions did not surface to gain recognition in the old world for many years, and often centuries. In particular, the efforts of Luigi Ferdinando Marsili, who actually initiated the methods of marine science that evolved into the basic science of modern oceanography, had his share of the ignorance from the establishment, but survived the centuries, as compared to Piri Reis who gave his life against bigotry, while his superior world map remained undiscovered until the beginning of the 20th century. A much overlooked set of observations reported by Piri Reis on tides is brought under light, and referenced with respect to the historical trend of development which was far behind his level.

Keywords: Piri Reis, civilization, oceanography, Turkish Straits, Black Sea, Bosphorus, Mediterranean, ecosystems

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Heavy metal levels in Euthynnus affinis (Cantor 1849) Kawakawa fish marketed at Karachi Fish Harbour, Pakistan and potential risk to human health

Quratulan Ahmed, Levent Bat

The Marine Reference Collection and Resources Centre, University of Karachi, 75270, Karachi, PAKISTAN
Department of Hydrobiology, Fisheries Faculty, Sinop University, 57000, Sinop, TURKEY


Heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, and Pb) in muscles and liver of Euthynnus affinis (mean length of 61.02 3.618cm and mean weight of 2600 586.647g) from Karachi Fish Harbour of Pakistan during different seasons from October 2010 to September 2011 were determined. The metal concentrations in the muscles of E. affinis were always lower than those in livers within different seasons. Iron was the highest and lead was the lowest in both muscle and liver. The highest Fe and Mn concentrations were 47 12.5 and 10.4 3.2 μg/g dry wt. in muscles during South-west monsoon, respectively. The maximum concentrations of Fe (660 141 μg/g dry wt.), Mn (47.4 12.3 μg/g dry wt.) and Ni (2.8 0.8 μg/g dry wt.) were also recorded in liver during South-west monsoon season. The maximum Pb concentration in muscle and liver of Kawakawa were 0.4958 0.13641 and 1.5950 0.3045 µg metal g-1 dry wt., respectively. In general, it was found that the levels of heavy metals studied were lower than the maximum permissible limit of the food regulations of international standards. These data have provided a useful baseline for future reference.

Keywords: Heavy metal, Euthynnus affinis, Karachi Fish Harbour

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Catalase activity and lipid peroxidation process of the Black Sea macroalgae dominants (epiphytes and lithophytes) under different environmental conditions

Оlga Shakhmatova, Еlena Chernyshova

The A.O. Kovalevsky Institute of the Southern Seas, Nakhimov av., 2, Sevastopol, CRIMEA


Catalase activity (CA) and the lipid peroxidation process (LPO) in Cystoseira phytocoenoses of the Black Sea under different environmental conditions were studied. Eleven dominants of the Black Sea macroalgae of different life forms (epiphytes and lithophytes) were investigated. It was shown that the LPO level of macroalgae changed in the conditionally clean water area over the range from 13.29±0.56 to 40.56±4.15 nM MDA/g, whereas CA level changed from 30.24 ± 5.1 to 108.67 ± 6.8 mсg Н2О/g·x min. The intensification of the LPO process by 27% on average was found in epiphytes macrophytes, as compared with the lithophytes. The maximum intensification was recorded in Polysiphonia subulifera, and the minimum intensification was recorded – in Callithamnion corymbosum (47 and 8.5%, respectively). The CA values of epiphytes macrophytes CA increased by 42.7% on an average as compared with lithophytes. The maximum difference between the CA indices of the epiphytes and lithophytes was recorded in C. corymbosum (59%) and the minimum one was recorded in Ceramium virgatum (10%).

Keywords: Catalase activity, lipid peroxidation process, macroalgae, epiphytes and lithophytes, household pollution, Black Sea

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Cell-wall images of marine algae by metachromatic method

Hüseyin Erdugan, Kasım Cemal Güven, Burak Coban, Rıza Akgül

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences and Art, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, 17100, Çanakkale, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Chemistry, Bülent Ecevit University, 67100, Merkez, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Kastamonu University Kuzeykent Campus, Kastamonu, TURKEY


Metachromatic image of cell-walls were investigated for seven algae. Species; red: Acanthophoranayadiformis Chondria capillaris Phyllophora crispa , brown: Petalonia fascia Cystoseira barbataDictyota dichotoma and green: Ulva linza . The tested methachromatic dyes were azur II, methylene blue and thioflavine. In this work, locations of algal acidic and sulfated polysaccharides in cell-wall of red and brown algae were demonstrated by metachromasy , except in green algae. The metachromatic method clearly showed the cell wall constituents of algae. Cuticle and epidermal cells intensely stained but also the inner cell wall polysaccharide accumulation clearly shown. The most obvious staining and color change was seen by azur II.

Keywords: Metachromasy, algae, cell wall components, acidic polysaccharides

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Documenting the occurrence of the Lessepsian fish Stephanolepis diaspros within the Strait of Sicily, central Mediterranean

Alan Deidun, Luca Castriota, Manuela Falautano, Giuseppe Maraventano, Elena Prazzi, Franco Andaloro

IOI-MOC, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, MALTA
Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA), 9014, Palermo, ITALY
Legambiente C.R.S. Ente Gestore Riserva Naturale Orientata Isola di Lampedusa, 92010, Lampedusa, ITALY


The increasing occurrence of the reticulated leatherjacket, Stephanolepis diaspros(Tetraodontiformes, Monacanthidae), a Lessepsian migrant, within the Strait of Sicily, central Mediterranean, is documented in this study. This is done through the collation of records of the species from coastal waters off the Maltese Islands, collected between August 2007 and May 2011, and through the publication of the second validated record for the same species, collected on 10 December 2013 from the island of Lampedusa (Pelagian Islands).

Keywords: Monacanthidae, Stephanolepis diaspros, Lessepsian, Strait of Sicily, reticulated leatherjacket, central Mediterranean

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Biochemical composition of some red and green seaweeds from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

Mint Khalil Fatimetou, Ajana Rabia, Kide Néné Gallé, Saoud  Younes

Faculty of Marine Scienceand Technology, University of Mustafa Kemal, Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY
Department of Chemistry,Faculty of Science and Literature, University of Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, TURKEY


The present study was aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of some red and green seaweed or macroalgae collected from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey between April-June 2013. Totally five seaweed samples, three red (JaniarubensLaurencia papillosaLaurencia obtusa) and two green (Ulva lactucaCodium fragile), were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from L. obtusa (142.94±3.24 mg g-1) whereas the lowest protein content was obtained from J. rubens (13.82±0.58 mg g-1). The carbohydrate yields of macroalgae varied from 155.23±1.79 to 643.93±4.68 mg g-1, the maximum carbohydrate concentration was recorded from green alga, C. fragile, (643.93±4.68 mg g-1) followed by green alga, U. lactuca, (506.69±9.19 mg g-1). The total phenolic contents of seaweed varied from 0.053±0.01 to 0.529±0.11 mg g-1 and the maximum phenolic substance content was recorded from L. obtusa (0.529±0.11 mg g-1). The green alga, U. lactuca, showed the highest Chlorophyll-a and carotene content (2.905±0.12 and 0.941±0.04 mg g-1 respectively) among these seaweeds.

Keywords: Biochemical composition, red seaweed, green seaweed, Iskenderun Bay