The Black Sea one decade after the Bucharest Convention an overview of the international activities in the Black Sea Region
B. Gül Göktepe
Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center P.O.Box.l, Ataturk Airport, 34831 Istanbul, TURKEY
Voluntary Vice President, Turkish Environmental and Woodland Protection Society
The catastrophic degradation of the Black Sea in a period of four decade has been the major concern of the Black Sea countries and international communities since the Bucharest Convention signed in 1992.The Black Sea Region has became a challenging intemational arena for political, scientific and socioeconomic activities. Intensive international programmes and establishment of governmental and Non Governmental Organizational structures of the 1990s including Black Sea Economic Cooperation (BSEC), Black Sea Environmental Programme (BSEP), Environmental Programme for the Danube River Basin, Marine Environmental Assessment of the Black Sea Region Technical Cooperation Programme by the IAEA and establishment of the Black Sea Commission Permanent Secretariat are some of the major international efforts of the past decade that emphasizes the multi -nationality and large dimension of the Black Sea environmental management issues. The environmental degradation of the Black Sea is briefly reviwed based on the BSEP reports and data available for land based pollution sources. The environmental risk of marine vessel accidents are also indicated and environmental safety concern is emphasized under the current conditions of intense energy transportation projects in the Black Sea and Caspian regions. The international policy actions, co-operation issues and scientific programmes of the past decade are overviewed with emphasis on the international achievements. Concluding remarks include the vital importance of continuation of the international commitments and sharing the political, scientific and socio-economic responsibility on the transboundary environmental pollution, rehabilitation and the safety issues of the Black Sea.
Keywords: Black Sea, environmental pollution, Bucharest Convention, Turkish Straits Region, Black Sea strategic action plan, marine radioactivity
Remote sensing of oil films on the sea surface
Maritime Transport and Management Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Istanbul, 34850, Avcilar, Istanbul, TURKEY
The calculation of the contrast is investigated between clear and oil covered sea surfaces. The problem is to estimate the contribution of these two effects on the total contrast, so that the substance effect can be calculated. Oil film thickness distribution and wave influence to contrast are also studied. It has been shown that there are sufficient contrasts for optical remote sensing of oil film.
Key words: Oil, optic constant, pollution, remote sensing, sea surface
A Comparative Study on Water Column and Bottom Feeding Habit of Tank Reared Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis)
Ibrahim Okumus, Nadir Basçinar
KTO, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Department of Fisheries, 61530 Trabzon, TURKEY
Çanakkale 18 Mart University, Faculty of Fisheries, 17100 Çanakkale, TURKEY
Feed consumption, growth rate and feed conversion were compared for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) feeding in the water column or at the tank bottom. The trial that lasted 120 days was conducted in four 300 l fiberglass tanks with two replicates; of 25 fish (mean weight of 45.9 g) in each feeding treatment. Fish fed in the water column exhibited a mean (SD) specific growth rate (SGR) of 0.93 and reached a final mean weight of 138.9 (28.5) g whereas bottom fed fish had a mean SGR of 0.91 and 135.7 (39.2) g body weight. Overall feed conversion ratios (FCR) and condition factors (CF) were assessed as 1.73, 1.22 for the water column and 1.71, 1.25 bottom fed fish. None of these variables showed statistically significant differences between the treatments. Thus, it seems that brook trout may feed both in water column and at bottom in tank culture conditions and this habit could be utilised for reducing feed waste in intensive commercial trout culture.
Key words: Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), feed consumption, food conversion, growth rate, water column or bottom feeding
Oil and detergent pollution on coastal areas of Dardanelles in 1996-1997
Kasim Cemal Güven, Rüstü Ilgar
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa 34470, Istanbul, TURKEY
The oil and detergent pollution was determined in coastal waters and sediments in Dardanelles at entrance, Gelibolu and Lapseki; at exit, Çanakkale. The max. level of oil pollution in sea water was 154.76 µg/L at the entrance and 76.30 µ/L at the exit in 1996; 429.54 µg/L and 539.10 µg/L respectively in 1997. In sediments 51.13 µg/g at the entrance and 338.76 µg/L at the exit in 1996 and 369.56 µg/L and 339.56 in 1997. In detergent pollution the max.level was 50.51 µg/L at the entrance and 61.84 at the exit in 1996 and 80.08 µg/L and 61.43 in 1997. The findings indicated that the coastal areas were more polluted than mid-points (shipping route) of Dardanelles and also Sea of Marmara in 1996.
Keywords: Dardanelles, sea water ,sediment, oil, detergent