Dietary propolis supplementation on growth and body composition of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Dietary propolis supplementation on growth and body composition of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Funda Turan

Iskenderun Technical University, Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Department of Aquaculture, 31200 Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY


A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary propolis extract supplementation on African catfish, Clarias gariepinus growth performance, survival rate and body composition. The African catfish (mean body weight 0.45±0.05 g) were fed with experimental diets prepared by using propolis extract supplementation (0, 5 and 10 g kg-1) for 90 days. The weight gain (12.93±0.48 g), FCR (1.39±0.05) and PER (1.44±0.05) were observed higher in catfish fed with 5 g kg-1 propolis extract than fed with 10 g kg-1 propolis extract significantly (P<0.05) but no statistical difference was found with the control group fish (P>0.05). Whole-body crude protein was significantly higher in catfish fed with 5 g kg-1 propolis extract, than in those fed with control and 10 g kg-1 propolis extract (P<0.05). Based on the results of the present study, it is suggested that feeding fish with 5 g kg-1 of propolis extracts for 90 days has no adverse effect on survival and enhanced the better weight gain and protein in the composition of the African catfish.

Keywords: African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, propolis, growth promoter

pdf-dl icon


Abd-El-Rhman, A.M. (2009) Antagonism of aeromonas hydrophila by propolis and its effect on the performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticusFish &Shellfish Immunology 27(3): 454-459.

Acar, Ü. (2018) Effects of diet supplemented with ethanolic extract of propolis on growth performance, hematological and serum biochemical parameters and disease resistance of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) against Streptococcus iniaeAquaculture 495: 339-344.

AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis, 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, Viginia, USA.

Bae, J.Y., Park, G.H., Lee, J.Y., Okorie, O. E., Bai, S.C. (2012) Effects of dietary propolis supplementation on growth performance, immune responses, disease resistance and body composition of juvenile eel, Anguilla japonica. Aquaculture International 20(3): 513-523.

Bankova, V.S., Castro De, L.S., Marcucci, M.C. (2000) Propolis: recent advances in chemistry and plant origin. Apidologie 31: 3-15.

Bonomi, A., Bonomi, B., Quarantelli, A., Sabbioni, A., Superchi, P. (2002) L’impiego della propoli nell’alimentazione delle anatre da carne. Rivista di Scienza dell’Alimentazione 31(1): 15-28.

Chakraborty, S.B., Hancz, C. (2011) Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture 3(3): 103-119.

Chu, W.H. (2006) Adjuvant effect of propolis on immunisation by inactivated Aeromonas hydrophila in carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Fish Shellfish Immunology 21(1): 113-117.

Citarasu, T. (2010) Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International 18(3): 403-414.

De la Cruz-Cervantes, J.A., Benavides-Gonzalez, F., Sánchez-Martínez, J.G., Vázquez-Sauceda, M.D.L.L., Ruiz-Uribe, A.J. (2018) Propolis in aquaculture: a review of its potential. Reviews in Fisheries Science & Aquaculture 26(3): 337-349.

Deng, J., An, Q., Bi, B., Wang, Q., Kong, L., Tao, L., Zhang, X. (2011) Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis on growth performance and plasma biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish physiology and Biochemistry 37(4): 959-967.

Denli, M., Cankaya, S. Silici, S. Okan, F., Uluocak. A.N. (2005) Effect of dietary addition of Turkish propolis on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and serum variables of quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 18(6): 848-854.

Dotta, G., Brum, A., Jeronimo, G. T., Maraschin, M., Martins, M.L. (2015) Effect of dietary supplementation with propolis and Aloe barbadensis extracts on hematological parameters and parasitism in Nile tilapia. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 24(1): 66-71.

FAO (2016) State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture,Food & Agriculture Org.

Ghisalberti, E.L. (1979) Propolis: a review. Bee World 60: 26-84.

Hamed, H.S., Abdel-Tawwab, M. (2017) Ameliorative effect of propolis supplementation on alleviating bisphenol-A toxicity: Growth performance, biochemical variables, and oxidative stress biomarkers of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) fingerlings. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology 202: 63-69.

Havsteen, B.H. (2002) The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids. Pharmacology & Therapeutics 96: 67-202.

Hosnuter, M., Gurel, A., Babuccu, O., Armutcu, F., Kargi, E., Isikdemir, A. (2004) The effect of CAPE on lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels in the plasma of rats following thermal injury. Burns 30: 121-125.

Jiang, J., Zheng, Z., Wang, K., Wang, J., He, Y., Wang, E., Huang, X. (2015) Adjuvant immune enhancement of subunit vaccine encoding pSCPI of Streptococcus iniae in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). International journal of molecular sciences 16(12): 28001-28013.

Junior, D.S., Queiroz, A.C. Lana, R.P. Pacheco, C.G. Camardelli, M.M.L. Detmann, E. Eifert, E.C. Nunes, P.M. M., Oliveira, M.V.M. (2004) Ação do extrato de própolis sobre a fermentação in vitro de diferentes alimentos pela técnica de produção de gases. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 33(4): 1093-1099.

Lee, K.J., Dabrowski, K., Rinchard, J., Gomez, C., Guz, L., Vilchez, C. (2004) Supplementation of maca (Lepidium meyenii) tuber meal in diets improves growth rate and survival of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) alevins and juveniles. Aquaculture Research 35(3): 215-223.

Meurer, F., Matiuzzi da Costa, M., De Barros, D.A.D., Leal de Oliveira, S.T., Da Paixão, P.S. (2009) Brown propolis extract in feed as a growth promoter of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Linnaeus 1758) fingerlings. Aquaculture Research 40(5): 603-608.

Mioso, R., Marantea, F.J.T., De Lagunab, I.H. B., Bessonartc. M. (2014) Qu_ımica de productos naturales aplicada a la acuicultura: Una revisi_on interdisciplinar. Quim Nova 37(3): 513-520.

Olusola, S.E., Emikpe, B.O., Olaifa, F.E. (2013) The potentials of medicinal plant extracts as bio-antimicrobials in aquaculture. International Journal of Medicinal Aromatic Plants 3: 404-412.

Orsolic, N., Kosalec, I., Basic. I. (2005) Synergystic antitumor effect of polyphenolic components of water soluble derivative of propolis against ehrlich ascites tumour (Biopharmacy). Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28(4): 694-700.

Reverter, M., Bontemps, N., Lecchini, D., Banaigs, B., Sasal, P. (2014) Use of plant extracts in fish aquaculture as an alternative to chemotherapy: current status and future perspectives. Aquaculture 433: 50-61.

Seven, P.T. (2008) The effects of dietary Turkish propolis and vitamin C on performance, digestibility, egg production and egg quality in laying hens under different environmental temperatures. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 21(8): 1164-1170.

Soltani, E.K., Cerezuela, R., Charef, N., Mezaache-Aichour, S., Esteban, M.A., Zerroug, M.M. (2017) Algerian propolis extracts: Chemical composition, bactericidal activity and in vitro effects on gilthead seabream innate immune responses. Fish & shellfish immunology 62: 57-67.

Syahidah, A., Saad, C.R., Daud, H.M., Abdelhadi, Y.M. (2015) Status and potential of herbal applications in aquaculture: A review. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 14(1): 27-44.

Tukmechi, A., Karimi Rad, F., Farrokhi, F., Agh, N., Jalili, R. (2014) The effects of short-and long-term diet supplementation with Iranian propolis on the growth and immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research 15(3): 250-255.

Turan, F. (2018) The effect of suplementary Pelargonium sidoides extract on growth of the African catfish (Clarias gariepınus (Burchell, 1822)). Natural and Engineering Sciences 3(3): 292-299.

Turan, F., Gezer, A. (2018) Preliminary assessment of the effect of dietary Pelargonium sidoides extract on the haematological profile of common carp, Cyprinus carpio Linneaus, 1758. Journal of the Black Sea/Medit Environ 24(3): 246-25.

Turan, F., Gürlek, M., Yağlıoğlu, D. (2007) Dietary red clover (Trifolium pratense) on growth performance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 6(12): 1429-1433.

Turan, F., Mazlum, Y., Yıldırım, Y.B., Gezer, A. (2012) Use of dietary Pelargonium sidoides extract to improve growth and body composition of narrow-clawed crayfish Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 juveniles. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 12 (1-2): 233-238.

Turan, F., Yiğitarslan, D. (2016) The effects of rosemary extract (Rosemaria officinalis) as a feed additive on growth and whole-body composition of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)). Natural and Engineering Sciences 1(3): 49-55.

Valle, M.L. (2000) Quantitative determination of antibacterian capacities of propolis. Apiacta 35: 152-161.

Wafaa, E., Doaa, I., El-Murr, A., Rania, M. (2014) Effects of dietary inclusion of black cumin seeds, green tea and propolis extraction on growth parameters, body composition and economic efficiency of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. World Journal of Fisheries Marine Science 6(5): 447-452.

Yonar, M.E., Yonar, S.M., Silici, S. (2011) Protective effect of propolis against oxidative stress and immunosuppression induced by oxytetracycline in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 31(2): 318-325.