Chemical composition of the essential oil of sea fennel seed (Crithmum maritimum L.) from Turkey
Funda Turan, M. Kemal Sangun, Ayşegül Ergenler
Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Iskenderun Technical University, Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Hatay Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, TURKEY
ORCID IDs: F.T. 0000-0002-0257-6009; M.K.S. 0000-0001-5023-3935; A.E. 0000-0001-9186-3909
This study was carried out to determine the essential oil composition of the sea fennel, Crithmum maritimum seed collected from Arsuz, Hatay (Turkey). The components of the essential oil were identified through GC/MS. The identity of 23 compounds of the essential oil was confirmed and their relative proportion was determined. The yield of essential oil was found 0.6%. Monoterpenic hydrocarbons: sabinene (43.29%), p-cymene (13.27%), α-phellandrene (13.16%), α-pinene (10.58%) and γ-terpinene (10.56%) were major compounds in essential oil of sea fennel seed. Sabinene has the highest percentage composition in the C. maritimum seed essential oil (43.29%). It is suggested that the sea fennel seed can be used as a trading source for commercial cultivation and potential medicinal uses of C.maritimum in Turkey.
Keywords: Sea fennel, Crithmum maritimum, essential oils, GC/MS
Akyurt, I., Erikli, Z. (2016) Investigation of antibacterial activity in sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum) growing wild in Giresun coast. Journal of Anatolian Environmental and Animal Sciences 1(1): 34-37.
Atia, A., Barhoumi, Z., Mokded, R., Abdelly, C., Smaoui, A. (2011) Environmental eco-physiology and economical potential of the halophyte Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae). The Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5: 3564-3571.
Baser, K.H.C., Özek, T., Demirci, B., Saritas, Y. (2000) Essential oil of Crithmum maritimum L. from Turkey. Journal of Essential Oil research 12(4): 424-426.
Baytop, T. (1984) Treatment with Plants in Turkey. Istanbul Univ. Publ, 3255. Istanbul, Turkey.
Boutekedjiret, C., Bentahar, F., Belabbes, R., Bessiere, J.M. (2003) Extraction of rosemary essential oil by steam distillation and hydrodistillation. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 18: 481-484.
Coiffard, L., Piron‐Frenet, M., Amicel, L. (1993) Geographical variations of the constituents of the essential oil of Crithmum maritimum L., Apiaceae. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 15(1): 15-21.
Davis, P. H., Tan, K. (1988) Flora of Turkey and the Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press.
Ebadi, M.T., Mollaei, S., Khurizadeh, S. (2019) Evaluation of volatile and phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of different parts of Ferulago angulata (schlecht.) Boiss. Industrial Crops and Products 140: 111589.
Houta, O., Akrout, A., Neffati, M., Amri, H. (2011) Phenolic contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Crithmum maritimum cultivated in Tunisia Arid zones. Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature 1: 138-143.
Jallali, I., Zaouali, Y., Missaoui, I., Smeoui, A., Abdelly, C., Ksouri, R. (2014) Variability of antioxidant and antibacterial effects of essential oils and acetonic extracts of two edible halophytes: Crithmum maritimum L. and Inula crithmoïdes L. Food Chemistry 145: 1031-1038.
Kazemi, M. (2015) Phenolic profile, antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activity of Anethum graveolens L. essential oil. Natural Product Research 29(6): 551-553.
Kulisic‐Bilusic, T., Blažević, I., Dejanović, B., Miloš, M., Pifat, G. (2010). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of essential oils from caper (Capparis spinosa) and sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum) by different methods. Journal of Food Biochemistry 34: 286-302.
Meot-Duros, L., Magne, C. (2009) Antioxidant activity and phenol content of Crithmum maritimum L. leaves. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 47: 37-41.
Ozcan, M., Akgül, A., Başer, K. H. C., Özek, T., Tabanca, N. (2001) Essential oil composition of sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum) form Turkey. Food/Nahrung 45(5): 353-356.
Ozcan, B., Esen, M., Sangun, M. K., Coleri, A., Caliskan, M. (2010) Effective antibacterial and antioxidant properties of methanolic extract of Laurus nobilis seed oil. Journal of Environmental Biology 31(5): 637-641.
Ozcan, M.M., Pedro, L.G., Fıgueıredo, A.C., Barroso, J. (2006) Constituents of the essential oil of sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.) growing wild in Turkey. Journal of Medicinal Food 9: 128-130.
Pateira, L., Nogueira, T., Antunes, A., Venancio, F., Tavares, R., Capelo, J. (1999) Two chemotypes of Crithmum maritimum from Portugal. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 14: 333-343.
Pistrick, K. (2002) Current taxonomical overview of cultivated plants in the families Umbelliferae and Labiatae. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 49: 211-225.
Quiroga, P.R., Asensio, C.M., Nepote, V. (2015) Antioxidant effects of the monoterpenes carvacrol, thymol and sabinene hydrate on chemical and sensory stability of roasted sunflower seeds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 95(3): 471-479.
Renna, M., Gonnella, M. (2012) The use of the sea fennel as a new spice-colorant in culinary preparations. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science 1: 111-115.
Renna, M., Gonnella, M., Caretto, S., Mita, G., Serio, F. (2017) Sea fennel (Crithmum maritimum L.): from underutilized crop to new dried product for food use. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 64(1): 205-216.
Ruberto, G., Baratta, M.T. (2000) Antioxidant activity of selected components in two lipid model systems. Food Chemistry 169: 167-174.
Ruberto, G, Tiziana Baratta M, Deans, S., Damien, G., Dorman, H.J. (2000) Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oil. Planta Medica 66: 687-693.
Senatore, F., De Feo, V. (1994) Essential oil of a possible new chemotype of Crithmum maritimum L. growing in Campania (Southern Italy). Flavour and Fragrance Journal 9(6): 305-307.
Senatore, F., Napolitano, F., Ozcan, M. (2000) Composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from Crithmum maritimum L. (Apiaceae) growing wild in Turkey. Flavour and Fragrance Journal 15: 186-189.
Zarrouk, M., El Almi, H., Ben Youssef, N., Sleimi, N., Ben Miled, D., Smaoui, A., Abdelly, C. (2004) Lipid composition of seeds of local halophyte species: Cakile maritima, Zygophyllum album and Crithmum maritimum. In: Lieth H (ed) Cash crop halophytes: recent studies. Kluwer Academic Publishers Group, Dordrecht, pp 121-126.