A suggestion to improve navigational safety in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus): Patrol tugs
Gizem Kodak, Cahit İstikbal
ORCID IDs: G.K. 0000-0002-1845-7901; C.İ. 0000-0002-5020-1025
Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earth Sciences, Climate and Marine Sciences Department, 34469, Maslak / Istanbul, TURKEY
University of Kyrenia, Faculty of Maritime Studies, Maritime Transportation Management Engineering Department, Kyrenia, NORTHERN CYPRUS
Maritime Transportation and Management Engineer and Chief Pilot, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport Maritime Affairs and Communications, Directorate General of Coastal Safety, Istanbul, TURKEY
The Strait of Istanbul, which connects the Black Sea countries and the rest of the world, is the second busiest waterway in the world. In addition to intensive maritime traffic, the increased risk of accidents is alarming, given the environmental factors that complicate the navigation of the vessels. Historical data and literature review have shown that there is room for improvement with regard to measures taken to ensure the safe navigation in order to prevent accidents in the Strait of Istanbul. In this respect, determining the characteristics of past maritime accidents and identifying risky areas is vital to improve the level of safety. In this study, the temporal and spatial profile of maritime accidents that occurred in the Strait of Istanbul in the 2006-2015 period have been examined simultaneously with the variables of hourly wind speed and wind direction in the region. Results that were obtained indicate that accidents impending to happen can be prevented in the Strait of Istanbul if the patrol tugs take action when the ships were experiencing breakdown and/or navigational difficulties. The effectiveness, response time and response options of the proposed patrol tugboats were evaluated in two different scenarios where ship and currents are parallel and anti-parallel.
Keywords: Maritime policy, safety navigation, patrol tugs
Acarer, T. (2018) Review of GMDSS Legislation on VHF EPIRB Device and Alternative Legislation Suggestions. Social Sciences Research Journal 7(2): 126-150. (in Turkish)
Altan, Y.C. (2017) Analysis and Modeling of Maritime Traffic and Ship Collision in the Strait of Istanbul Based on Automatic Vessel Tracking System. PhD Thesis, Graduate Program in Civil Engineering Boğaziçi University, Istanbul.
Arslan, O. (2014) The Evaluation of Trend Analysis of Vessels that Pass-Through Istanbul and Çanakkale Straits. MSc. Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering Graduate Program, Trabzon.
Arslan, Ö., Turan, O. (2009) Analytical investigation of marine casualties at the Strait of Istanbul with SWOT–AHP method. Maritime Policy & Management 36(2): 131-145.
Aşan, C., Özsoy, B., Şıhmantepe, A., Solmaz, M.S. (2020) A case study on oil pollution in Istanbul Strait: Revisiting 1994 Nassia tanker accident by utilising Potential Incident Simulation Control and Evaluation System (PISCES-II) simulation. What would be different in terms of response if Nassia accident happened today?. Marine Pollution Bulletin 151: 110813.
Atasoy, C. (2008) Investigation of Local Traffic in Istanbul Strait. MSc. Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Istanbul.
Butt, N., Johnson, D., Pike, K., Pryce-Roberts, N., Vigar, N. (2012) 15 Years of Shipping Accidents: A Review for WWF. Southampton Solent University, Available at: http://awsassets.panda.org/downloads/15_years_of_shipping_accidents_a_review_for_wwf_.pdf (accessed 20 Apr 2021)
Coleman, D. (2015) Box Plot with Minitab. Available at: https://www.leansigmacorporation.com/box-plot-with-minitab/ (accessed 08 Nov 2021)
DNV (2013) Det Nortske Veritas. Report Escort Tug Effectiveness in the Bosphorus Strait, Chevron Products UK LTD, REPORT NO./DNV REG NO.: 2013-9178 / 1-6YRAF0, REV 1, 2013-04-25.
DTGM (2018) Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications Directorate General of Merchant Marine, Available at: https://atlantis.udhb.gov.tr/istatistik/gemi_gecis.aspx (accessed 8 Mar 2021)
Eleftheria, E., Apostolos, P., Markos, V. (2016) Statistical analysis of ship accidents and review of safety level. Safety Science 85: 282-292.
ICS (2020) International Chamber of Shipping Description of the Subject – International Chamber of Shipping. Available at: http://en.reingex.com/Chamber-Shipping.shtml#:~:text=The%20purpose%20of%20the%20International,transporting%20all%20types%20of%20cargo (accessed 03 Nov 2020)
IMO Recommendations (1995) Routing Measures Other Than Traffic Separation Schemes, Rules and Recommendations on Navigation Through the Strait of Istanbul, the Strait of Çanakkale and the Marmara Sea. Assembly Resolution A. 827(19), Annex 2. 1995.
ITOPF (2018) The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Limited, Oil Tanker Spill Statistics 2018, Major Oil Spills, Top 20 Major Spills Table, Available at: https://www.itopf.org/knowledge-resources/data-statistics/statistics (Accessed 12 May 2021)
İnan, M. (2011) Effects of Istanbul Strait and Northeast of Marmara Sea Based Ship Accidents on the Marine Environment. Master Thesis, Istanbul University Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul.
İstikbal, C. (2006) Turkish Straits: Difficulties and The Importance Of Pilotage. In: The Turkish Straits: Maritime Safety, Legal and Environmental Aspects, (eds., Ozturk, B., Oral, N.), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, p. 66 – 80.
İstikbal, C. (2020) Strait of Istanbul, major accidents and abolishment of left-hand side navigation. Aquatic Research 3(1): 40-65.
KEGM (2020) Directorate General of Coastal Safety, “Turkish Straits Ship Passing Statistics ”, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Maritime Statistics, (in Turkish) http://www.kiyiemniyeti.gov.tr/resmi_istatistikler https://atlantis.udhb.gov.tr/istatistik/gemi_gecis.aspx (accessed 20 Jun 2021)
Keçeci, T. (2010) Analysis of the Effects of Ship Length Factor to Safe Navigation in the Strait of Istanbul by Using the AHP Method. MSc Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Istanbul, 2010
Kodak, G. (2021) The role of international maritime traffic on PM10 pollutant in the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus). International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics (IJEGEO) 9(3): 036-047.
Kodak, G., Acarer, T. (2021) Evaluation of the effect of maritime traffic regulations on the accident rate in the strait of Istanbul. Aquatic Research 4(2): 181-207.
Kulkarnia, K., Goerlandtb, F., Lic, J., Bandaa, O.V.P., Kujala, P. (2020) Preventing shipping accidents: Past, present, and future of waterway risk management with Baltic Sea focus. Safety Science 129: 104798.
Küçükosmanoğlu, A. (2012) Maritime Accidents Forecast Model for Bosphorus, Ph.D Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Faculty of Civil Engineering.
Küçükyıldız, M.Ç. (2014) The Effects of Oil Tanker Accidents to the Marine Environment and Compensation System. Thesis of Maritime Expert, Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport, Maritime Affairs and Communications.
Maritime Traffic Regulations for the Turkish Straits (1998) Official Gazette: 23515, 06 November 1998. Available at: http://www.vda.org.tr/upload/duyuru/TÜRK%20BOĞAZLARI%20DENİZ%20TRAFİK%20DÜZENİ%20YÖNETMELİĞİ%20İNGİLİZCE%202019.pdf (accessed 08 Oct 2021)
Maritime Local Traffic Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul (2011) Date retrieved: 9.12.2019, for the original full text of the “Maritime Local Traffic Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul in Turkish language, address: Guide of Harbor Master of Istanbul in Turkish language, Available at: http://denizmevzuat.udhb.gov.tr/dosyam/%C4%B0STANBUL%20L%C4%B0MAN%20B%C5%9EKANLI%C4%9EI%20YEREL%20DEN%C4%B0Z%20TRAF%C4%B0%C4%9%C4%B0%20REHBER%C4%B0.doc (Accessed 5 May 2021)
Musaoğlu, N., Tanık, A., Dikerler, T., Buhur, S. (2015) Use of remote sensing and geographic information systems in the determination of high-risk areas regarding marine traffic in the Istanbul Strait. Environmental Hazards 14(1): 54-73.
MSRCC (2019) Republic of Turkey Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, Main Search and Rescue Co-ordination Centre. Available at: http://aakkm.udhb.gov.tr/ (accessed 02 May 2021)
Özbaş, B. (2010) Risk Analysis Study of Maritime Traffic in the Strait of Istanbul, Ph.D. Thesis, Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Boğaziçi University.
Özbaş, B., Or, İ., Altıok, T. (2013) Comprehensive scenario analysis for mitigation of risks of the maritime traffic in the Strait of Istanbul. Journal of Risk Research 16(5): 541-561.
Özdemir, M. (2019) Spatial Analysis and Evaluation of Ship Accidents Occurred in Turkish Straits. MSc Thesis, Karadeniz Technical University, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering Graduate Program, Trabzon.
Özsoy, E. (2016) Introduction to geographical, historical and scientific importance of the Turkish Straits System. In: The Sea of Marmara, Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance (ed., Öztürk, B.), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 42, Istanbul.
Puisa, R., Lin, L., Bolbot, V., Vassalos, D. (2018) Unravelling causal factors of maritime incidents and accidents. Safety Science 110(Part A): 124-141.
Qu, X., Meng, Q., Suyi, L. (2011) Ship collision risk assessment for the Singapore Strait. Accident Analysis and Prevention 43(2011): 2030-2036.
Şirin, Ö. (2018) Risk Analysis and Modeling of the Maritime Traffic in the Strait of Istanbul, Ph.D. Thesis, Graduate Program in Industrial Engineering, Boğaziçi University.
Taşan, M. (2019) Analysing Passages and Passages Times of Ships from Turkish Straits. Master Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Istanbul.
Topakoğlu, L. (2004) Environmental Risk Assessment of Maritime Oil Transport in the Strait of Istanbul. MSc Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Graduate School of Science Engineering and Technology, Istanbul.
Turkish Navy (1990) Istanbul Strait Current Profiles. Turkish Navy publications, Istanbul, Turkey.
Turkish Straits Navigation Guide (2015) Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, Istanbul.
UNCTAD/ RMT/ (2018) Review of Maritime Transport 2018. United Nations publication issued by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD: Geneva, Switzerland, Available at: https://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/rmt2018_en.pdf (accessed 07 May 2021)
User’s Guide of Turkish Straits Vessel Traffic Services (2018) Republic Of Turkey Ministry Of Transport And Infrastructure Directorate General Of Coastal Safety. Available at: https://kiyiemniyeti.gov.tr/Data/1/Files/Document/Documents/9S/6R/yY/wu/TSVTS_User_Guide_21.05.20.pdf (accessed 12 Dec 2021)
Zaman, M.B., Kobayashi, E., Wakabayashi, N., Maimun, A. (2015) Risk of navigation for marine traffic in the Malacca Strait using AIS, 2nd International Seminar on Ocean and Coastal Engineering, Environment and Natural Disaster Management, ISOCEEN 2014. Procedia Earth and Planetary Science 14: 33-40.