Determination of selected steroid compounds in sediment samples from Golden Horn Estuary (the Sea of Marmara, Turkey) using LC-ESI/MS-MS

Determination of selected steroid compounds in sediment samples from Golden Horn Estuary (the Sea of Marmara, Turkey) using LC-ESI/MS-MS

Duygu Aydoğan, Türkan Yurdun

ORCID IDs: D.A. 0000-0003-2663-3001; T.Y. 0000-0002-2554-1204

Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, Marmara University, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, TURKEY


One of the most important areas where environmental pollution creates concern is aquatic environments. Steroids have the potential to disrupt the physiological function of hormones by interfering with the endocrine system. In our study, analysis of 31 selected human/animal, plant, natural and synthetic hormone-steroids was performed with Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS-MS) device after the extraction of sediment samples from 15 stations in Istanbul Golden Horn with acidic methanol in an ultrasonic bath. Among the physiologically active estrogens used in birth control pills, equilin (54.46-2201.00 ng/g), estriol (2265.13 ng/g only in H1 sediment sample), mestranol (82.34-335.82 ng/g); from progestogens progesterone (1.59-6.03 ng/g), pregnenolone (44.19-1704.54 ng/g), levonorgestrel (1.55-7.78 ng/g); androgens 4-androstenedione (19.91-22.71 ng/g), androsterone (72.66-467.56 ng/g), testosterone (12.54-16.19 ng/g); cholestanone (157.57-1163.07 ng/g), coprostanol+epicoprostanol (42.82-103.26 ng/g) from human and animal wastes, and campesterol (143.86-1423.94 ng/g) from phytosterols were detected. As a result of the analysis, steroids were found in all sediment samples. Coprostanol+epicoprostanol and cholestanone, which are biomarkers of fecal contamination, are present in all of the sediment samples. Our study is the first to evaluate the presence of possible steroid hormones that pose a risk to organisms and ecosystem health in Golden Horn sediments.

Keywords: Estuarine system, hormones, sediment, LC-ESI/MS-MS, steroid, endocrine disrupting

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