Assessment of the genotoxic effect of thiamethoxam in Cyprinus carpio by the micronucleus and Comet assays
Ayşegül Ergenler, Funda Turan
ORCID IDs: A.E. 0000-0001-9186-3909; F.T. 0000-0002-0257-6009
Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Iskenderun Technical University, 31200, Iskenderun, Hatay, TÜRKİYE
Pesticides are compounds formed by natural or various chemical processes that kill harmful organisms, remove pests from their environment, reduce population density or completely eliminate them. Monitoring for toxic effects and screening for different insecticides is vital and crucial for reducing adverse effects on aquatic organisms and public health. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine genotoxic effect of thiamethoxamine in a model fish species, Cyprinus carpio, using the micronucleus test and Comet assay. Common carp (average weight of 1.56±0.31g) were exposed to control and three different concentrations of thiamethoxamine (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg L-1) based on previously detected aquatic environmental concentrations for ten days. At the end of study, the Damage frequency (%), Arbitrary unit and Genetic damage index (%) were evaluated in gill and liver cells of carp by Comet assay. Micronucleus frequencies and erythrocyte abnormalities were also determined in erythrocytes cells of carp by micronucleus test. The highest micronucleus frequency and erythrocyte abnormalities were significantly observed in 2.0 mg L-1 group (p<0.001) and, the highest damage frequencies (%) as 74.000±1.732 and 68.000±1.732 were significantly observed in 2.0 mg L-1 group in gill and liver cells, respectively (p<0.001). Our results revealed significant increases in the frequencies of micronuclei and DNA strand breaks in C. carpio, following exposure to thiamethoxamine, thus demonstrated the genotoxic potential of this pesticide on fish.
Keywords: DNA damage, thiamethoxam, micronucleus test, Comet assay, pesticide
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