Present status of the Mediterranean Monk Seal, Monachus monachus, (Hermann, 1779) on the coasts of Foça in the Bay of Izmir (Aegean Sea)
Bayram Öztürk, Ayhan Dede
University of Istanbul, Faculty of Aquatic Products, Laleli-lstanbul, TURKEY
The areas which bear habitat features for Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) were searched in Foça, as a pilot region for the project of Mediterranean monk seal. Seven caves and seven shelters were found. Interviews with the local fishermen revealed that seals were observed 29 times (max.) in 1991. 14 times in 1992 and five times in 1993. Besides, according to these fishermen, three different seals were defined in Foça and they were mostly seen around the Orak and Incir Islands. Direct observations have been made to find seals in Foça region but without success. The areas between Foça-Karaburun and Foça-Mordoğan were also searched. Compared with Foça. more seal observations were made by the fishermen in Karaburun and Mordoğan in 1992. Investigations were carried out in Foça on fishing details such as the fishing grounds, the species caught. the fishing gears and the size of the damage in the nets. The area was influenced by the fishing made with purse-seine. trawl and trammel nets. Out of 87 damaged trammel nets examined during the study, only 20 included the damages due to seals. Some human activities like fishing and tourism were noted to cause stress for seals in the area near the potential seal habitat.
Keywords: Mediterranean monk seal, habitat, distribution, Aegean Sea, Foça, fisheries
Akı, C. (1992) Akdeniz Foku ve Korunması. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi. Deniz Bilimleri ve Teknolojisi Enstitüsü, İzmir. p. 66.
Bareham, J., Furreddu, A. (1975) Observations on the use of grottos by Mediterranean monk seals. J. Zool. Lond., 175: 291-298.
Berkes, F. (1978) The possibility of movements of Monachus monachus between the coastal waters of Greece and Turkey. Brock University. St. Catherines. Ontario.
Berkes, F., Anat, H., Esenel, M. and Kışlalıoğlu, M. (1979) Distribution and ecology of Monachus monachus on Turkish coasts. In: The Mediterranean Monk Seal, Ronald, K. and Duguy, R. (Eds.). 113-127, UNEP Tech. Rep., Pergamon press, Oxford.
Berkes, F. (1982) Monk Seals on the Southwest coast of Turkey. Reprinted from Mammals in the Seas. FAO Fisheries series No: 5, Vol. IV, Published by FAO, Rome/Italy.
Boitani, L. (1991) Lc decline du phoque moine en Italie et sa survive dans un contexte Mediterraneen. Council of Europe. Seminar on conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Technical and Scientific Aspects. 4 May 1991. Antalya-Türkiye, pp. 30-31.
Boulva, J. (1979) Mediterranean Monk Seal. In: Mammals of the seas. Pinniped Species Summaries and Report on Sirenians. FAO Fisheries Series 5 (II): 195-100.
IUCN (1978) Red Data Book. International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Avenue du Mont Blanc, 1196 Gland, Switzerland.
Marchessaux, D. (1987) The Mediterranean Monk Seal In Turkey, Report on a Mission to Turkey for IUCN and UNEP. IUCN, Avenue du Mont Blanc. 1196 Gland, Switzerland. pp. 8-14.
Mursaloğlu, B. (1984) Monk seal conservation in Turkey. WWF Monthly Report, May 1984 97: 100.
Mursaloğlu. B. (1991) Biology and distribution of the Mediterranean Monk seal Monachus monachus on Turkish coasts. Council of Europe, Seminar on Conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Technical and scientific aspects. 4 May 1991, Antalya-Türkiye, p. 54.
Öztürk, B. (1992) Akdeniz Foku (Monachus monachus), inceleme, p. 86. Anahtar Yayınları, İstanbul.
Öztürk, B., Candan, A. and Erk, M.H. (1991) Cruise results covering the period from 1987 to 1991 on their Mediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus (Hermann. 1779) occuring along to Turkish coastline. Council of Europe, Seminar on conservation of the Mediterranean Monk Seal. Technical and Scientific Aspects. 4 May 1991, Antalya-Türkiye, p. 43.
Öztürk, B., Erim, H., Çolak, A. and Talu, U. (1990) Investigation on Mediterranean Monk Seals. Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779). in the caves along the coastline of Western Black Sea, Marmara and Aegean Seas. Rapports et proces-verbaux des reunions, Vol 32 Fascicule I. 1990, p. 237/ V-12. F. Doumenge Secretariat General: 16. Bd de Suisse (Pte de Monaco).
Öztürk, B. (1995) Publication of the National protection Strategy for the Protection of the Mediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus in Turkey and Foça Pilot Project. (in preparation).
Panou, A., Jacobs, J. and Panos, D. (1993) The Endangered Mediterranean Monk Seal Monachus monachus in the Ionian Sea, Greece. Biological Conservation 1993, 64, 129-140. Zoologisches Institut. Universitat München. Seialstrasse 25, D-8000 München 2,Germany.
Ronald, K. and Healey, P. (1974) Present status of the Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus). Migrat. Ser. UFAW- IUCN. London. p. 100.
Sergeant, D., Ronald, K., Boulva, J. and Berkes, F. (1978) The Recent Status of Monachus monachus, the Mediterranean monk seal. Biol. Conserv. 14, 259-87. Applied Science Publishers Ltd. Essex. England.