Heavy metal levels in sea water and sediments of Zonguldak, Turkey

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY


Heavy metal levels were measured in seawater and sediment in Zonguldak which is on the Black sea shore of Turkey. The samples were collected near the industrial areas and city beaches. Maximum concentrations of metals dissolved in seawater were found (nM) Cd 15.0±0.98 around Çatalağzı Power Station, Cr 112±8.6 in Alaplı Creek delta, Mn 715±8.3 in Filyos creek delta, Cu 122±1.5, Ni 142±10.6, Pb 39±9.0 and Zn 834±4.1in Zonguldak city beaches. Heavy metal levels in sediment were found as (μg/g) Cd 0.47±0.34, Cr 67.95±27.6, Cu 30.21±9.27, Mn 274.4±74.8, Ni 37.03±13.25, Pb 39.14±11.22, and Zn 84.6±18.5. Heavy metal concentrations were compared with the US EPA limitations and the other localities and seawater found to be highly polluted than the other Black Sea shores and similar to Rize and Hopa waters. According to recommendations of US EPA under the priority toxic pollutants list Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn levels are above the limits in Zonguldak seawater. Metal levels in sediment samples were found as polluted as the estuarine areas of other countries in the region.

Keywords: Heavy metal, sea water, sediment, Black Sea

pdf-dl icon


Bakan, G. and Özkoç, H.B. (2007). An ecological risk assessment of the impact of heavy metals in surface sediments on biota from the mid-Black Sea coast of Turkey. Int. J. Environ. Studies 64: 45—57.

Balkis, N., Topcuoglu, S., Güven, K.C., Öztürk, B., Topaloglu, B., Kirbasoglu, Ç. and Aksu, A. (2007). Heavy metals in shallow sediments from the Black sea, Marmara sea and Aegean sea regions of Turkey. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environ. 13: 147-153.

Bayat, O. (1998). Characterisation of Turkish fly ashes. Fuel 77: 1059-1066.

Bologa, A. S., Apas, M., Cociasu, A., Cuingioglu, E., Patrascu, V., Piescu, I. and Popa, L. (1998). Present level of contaminants in Romanian Black Sea Sector Marine pollution. In: Intl. Workshop on Marine Pollution, AIEA, IOC, UNEP, Monaco, 5-9 Oct. 1998. Proceeding SM-354/26: 58-63.

Bruland, K. W., Coale, K. H. and Mart, L. (1985). Analysis of seawater for dissolved cadmium, copper, and lead: An intercomparison of voltametric and atomic absorption methods. Mar. Chem. 17: 285-300.

Cevik, U., Damla, N. Kobya, A.l. Bulut, V.N. Duran, C. Dalgıc, G. Bozacı, R. (2008). Assessment of metal element concentrations in mussel (M. Galloprovincialis) in Eastern Black Sea, Turkey. J. Hazardous Materials 160: 396—401.

Guieu, C., Martin, J-M., Tankere, S. P. C., Mousty, F., Trincherini, P., Bazot,  M. and Dai, M. H. (1998). On trace metal geochemistry in the Danube River  and Western Black Sea. Estuar. Coast ShelfS. 47: 471-485.

Güven, K. C., Okus, E., Topcuoglu, S., Esen N., Kücükcezzar, R., Seddigh, E. and Kut, D. (1998). Heavy metal accumulation in algae and sediments of the Black Sea Coast of Turkey. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 67: 435-440.

Haraldsson, C. and Westerlund, S. (1988). Trace metals in the water columns of  the Black Sea and Framvaren Fjord. Mar. Chem. 23: 417-424.

Jordanova, A., Strezov, A., Ayranov, M., Petkov, N. and Stoilova, T. (1999). Heavy metal assessment in algae, sediments and water from the Bulgarian Black sea coast. Water Sci. Tech. 39: 207-212.

Lewis, B.L. and Landing, W.M. (1991). The biogeochemistry of Mn and Fe in the Black Sea. Deep-Sea Res. 38 (Suppl. 2), S773.

Lewis, B. L. and Landing, W. M. (1992). The investigation of dissolved and suspended particulate trace metal fractionation in the Black Sea. Mar. Chem. 40: 105-141.

Slaveykova, V.I., Karadjova, LB., Karadjov, M. and Tsalev, D.L. (2009). Trace Metal Speciation and Bioavailability in Surface Waters of the Black Sea Coastal Area Evaluated by HF-PLM and DGT Environ. Sci. Technol. Articles ASAP (30.03.2009).

Secrieru, D. and Secrieru, A. (2002). Heavy Metal Enrichment of Man-made Origin of Superficial Sediment on the Continental Shelf of the North-western Black Sea. Estuarine, Coastal Shelf Sci. 54: 513-526.

Tank-ere, S. P. C., Muller, F. L. L., Burton, J. D, Statham, P. J., Guieu, C. and Martin, J. M. (2001). Trace metal distributions in shelf waters of the northwestern Black Sea Cont. Shelf Res. 21: 1501-1532.

Topcuoglu, S., Kirbasoglu, Ç. and Gungor, N. (2002). Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from Turkish coast of Black Sea, 1997-1998. Environ. Int. 27: 521-526.

Topcuoglu, S., Ergul, H. A. , Baysal, A., Olmez, E. and Kut, D (2003). Determination of radionuclide and heavy metal concentrations in biota and sediment samples from Pazar and Rize stations in the eastern Black Sea. F’resenius Environ. Bull. 12: 695-699.

Topcuoglu, S., Olmez, E., Kirbasoglu, Ç., Yılmaz, Y. Z. and Saygin, N. (2004). Heavy metal and radioactivity in biota and sediment samples collected from Ünye in the eastern Black Sea. 37th CIESM Congress, 7-11 June 2004, Barcelona, Spain, Poster.

Uyar, G., Avcil, E., Oren, M., Karaca, F. and Oncel, S. (2009). Determination of Heavy Metal Pollution in Zonguldak (Turkey) by Moss Analysis (Hypnum cupressiforme). Environ. Eng. Sci. 26: 183-184.

US EPA (1999). National Recommended Water Quality Criteria correction office of paper, EPA 822-Z-99,001, pp 25.

Wilson, J.G., Komakhidze, A., Osadchaya, T., Alyomov, S., Romanov, A., Tediashvili, M. (2008). Evaluating ecological quality in the north-eastern Black Sea coastal zone. Mar. Poll. Bull. 57: 202-207.

Zeri C. and Voutsinou-Taliadouri F. (2003). Processes affecting the distribution of dissolved trace metals in the North Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Cont. ShelfRes. 23: 919-934.

Zeri, C., Voutsinou-Taliadouri, F s, Romanov, A. S., Ovsjany, E. I. and Moriki, A. (2000). A comparative approach of dissolved trace element exchange in two interconnected basins: Black Sea and Aegean Sea. Mar. Poll. Bull. 40: 666-673.