Anionic detergent LAS pollution and discharged amount from Turkish coasts to the Black Sea during 2004-2007

Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Cem Gazioğlu, Burak Çoban

Turkish Research Marine Foundation (TUDAV), Beykoz, 10, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Science and Management, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak, TURKEY


In this work LAS pollution was investigated at 82 stations of Turkish Black Sea coast and discharged LAS amount given to the Black Sea from undercurrent (Mediterranean Sea water) of Bosphorus and rivers of Turkey flow to the Black Sea during 2004-2007. The maximum LAS levels were measured during the years in the examined area are (μg/l): in 2006 as 82.91, at st.4 (Terkos, west part 1), 136.56 at st.13A (Zonguldak, west part 2) and 86.88 at st.47 (Giresun, east part) and in 2007 as 398.78 at st.13A (Zonguldak). Among the Turkish cities located in the Black Sea coast, the highest level LAS has been found in Zonguldak harbour (st.37A) in 2005, 2006 and 2007. LAS level in the east part (Sinop-Hopa) was found generally lower than west part (Şile-Ayancık) of Turkish coast of the Black Sea. The maximum level was found (μg/l) in the cities Giresun (st.47), 86.88, Ordu (st.44) 68.43, Samsun (st.35) 69.49, Hopa (st.62) 71.56 in 2006. LAS level was found not uniform in investigated area of the Black Sea. Its distribution strongly affected by sea current. There are two currents in the Turkish straits; Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Upper current carries the Black Sea water directed to the Sea of Marmara then the Aegean Sea/Mediterranean Sea. The sewage of Istanbul city is dumped from various plants into undercurrent of Mediterranean Sea flow to the Black Sea via Bosphorus. The quantity of undercurrent water is an average 193 kmper year. The maximum amount of LAS found in undercurrent Bosphorus was (μg/l): 63.56 in 2004, 36.5 in 2005, 118.77 in 2006 and 101.92 in 2007. Discharged LAS amount was estimated to the Black Sea from the undercurrent of Bosphorus as: 12352 t/y in 2004, 7044 t/y in 2005, 22774 t/y in 2006 and 19686 t/y in 2007. From the Turkish rivers as: Sakarya 225 t/y, Bartın 148 t/y, Kızılırmak 122 t/y and Yeşilırmak 168 t/y. Total LAS amount was estimated to be 20349 t/y from Turkish part to the Black Sea in 2007. When the pollution level between the monitoring years is compared and the year 2006 (except as st.13 in 2007) is found highest in all examined stations. In this investigation, the loss of LAS was also studied during sampling and analysis date and found that the loss reached after 5 days of sampling up to 60% and after 10 days 80%. These findings showed that the determination of LAS must be done immediately just after the sampling. This study is a first record for the detergent pollution in Turkish Black Sea coast and LAS amount given from Turkey to the Black Sea.

Keywords: LAS level, Turkish Black Sea coast, undercurrent of Bosphorus and rivers.

pdf-dl icon


Akıncı, S. and Güven, K. C. (1997). A new determination method of anionic detergent in the seawater based on metachromasy and correlation between Azur A and methylene bue assays. Turkish J. Mar. Sci. 3: 191-198.

Bektaş, A. and Güven, K.C. (2004). Determination of LAS by metachromatic method in seawater and reservoir water. Acta Pharm. Turc. 46: 83-94.

Çetintürk, K. and Güven, K. C. (2009). The effect of sodium concentration on the assay of LAS in seawater by MBAS methods. J.Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 15: 33- 45.

Crips, P.T., Eckert, J.M. and Gibson, A. (1978). The determination of anionic detergents at p.p.b. levels by hraphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 87: 97-101.

DeFerrer, J., Moreno, A., Vaquero, M.T., Okpokwasili, G.C. and Olisa, A.O. (1991). River water biodegradation of surfactant in liquid detergents and shampoos. Water Res. 25: 1425-1429.

Fashchuk, D. Ya. and Shaporenko, S.I. (1995). Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: Sources, present-day level, annual variability. Water Resources 22: 250-259.

Fashchuk, Ya, D. and Shaporenko, S. I. (1995). Pollution of the Black Sea coastal waters: source, present-day level, Annual variability. Water Resources 22: 250-259.

Gonzáles-Mazo, E. and Gòmez-Parra, A. (1996). Monitoring anionic surfactants (LAS) and their intermediate degradation products in the marine environment. Trends in Analytical Chemistry 15: 375-380.

Guckert, J.B., Walker, D.D. and Belanger, S.E. (1996). Environmental chemistry for a surfactant ecotoxicology study supports rapid degradation of C12 alkylsulfate in a continuous-flow stream mesocosm. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 15: 262-269.

Güven, K. C. and Cumalı, S. (2007). The influence of salinity of seawater on the determination of LAS by MBAS methods. Acta Pharm. Sci. 49: 161-166.

Güven, K. C., Yalçın, A. and Çiftçi, P. S. (2008). The loss of LAS during storage in water and seawater. Acta Pharm. Sci. 50: 5-10.

Güven, K.C., Gürakın, N., Akıncı, S., Bektaş, A. and Öz, V. (1994). Metachromatic method for the assay of LAS in town and sea water. Acta Pharm. Turc. 36: 136-140.

Han, S. and Yang, H. (1992). Degradation of LAS from the detergent was water by the immobilized mixed bacteria culture Weishengwuxue Tongbao 19: 88-91 C.A. 117: 239037 (1993).

Hellman, H. (1979). Analytische Bestimmung von Aniontensiden in Schweb-und Sinktoffen sowie Klarschlammen. Analytische Chemie 295: 393-397.

Hon-Nami, H. and Hanya, T. (1980). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in river and bay water. Water Research 14: 1251- 1256.

Jaoshvili, S. (2007). The rivers of the Black Sea. European Environment Agency, Technical Report No: 71, 58 pp.Available from:

Koç, H. Gezgin, T. and Güven, K. C. (2001). Determination of LAS by HPLC method. Turkish J. Mar. Sci. 7: 85-92.

Koç, H., Güven, K. C. and Gezgin, T. (2002). Degradation of LAS in distilled, tap and sea water. Turkish J. Mar. Sci. 8: 91-102.

Mandych, A. F. and Shaporenko, S. I. (1992). Influence of the economic activities on coast upon the coastal waters of the Black Sea// Geo Journal, June 27.2, p.195 through Polikarpov et al. 1991.

Marcomini, A. and Giger, W. (1987). Simultaneous determination of linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, alkylphenol polyethoxylates and nonyl phenol by high performance liquid chromatography. Anal. Chem. 59: 1709-1715.

Marsilli, L. F. (1681). Observazioni interno al Bosporo Traio overo Canale di Constantinopoli, in L. Moller, 1928, Alfred Merz’ Hydrographische Untersuchungen im Bosporus und Dardanellen: Berlin, Veroff, Inst. Meeresk, Berlin Univ., Neue Folge A, Heft 18.

Merz, A. Die strömungen von Bosporus und Dardanellen 20th German Geographical Congress held in Leipzig in May 1921. Published in. Verhandl. XX. Deuts Geogrt. Leipzig 1921 pp. 106 et seq.

Mikhailov, V.N. Modern state of pollution of the Black Sea surface waters// ACOPS. Assesment of land-based sources of marine pollution in the seas adjacent to the C.I.S. Book of Abstracts, Sevastopol, 6-10 Apr., 1992, Sevastopol, 1992, 2: 56-57 (in Russian) through Polikarpov et al. 1991.

Okpokwasili, G.C. and Olisa, A.G. (1991). River water biodegradation of surfactants in liquid detergents and shampoos. Water Res. 10: 1425-1429.

Perales, J. A., Manzano, M. A., Sales, D. and Quiroga, J.M. (1999). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonates: Biodegradability an isomeric composition. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 63: 94-100.

Polikarpov, G. G., Zaitsev, Yu. P., Zats, V. I., Radchenko, L. A. (1991). Pollution of the Black Sea (levels and sources). Proceedings of the Black Sea Symposium 16-18 Sept. 1991, Istanbul, Turkey (Ed. K. C. Güven) Acar Matbaacılık A.Ş. Printed in 1994, Istanbul.

Raymundo, C.C. and Preston, M.R. (1992). The distribution of linear alkylbenzenes in coastal and estuarine sediments of the western North Sea. Mar. Poll. Bull. 24: 138-146.

Scott, M. J. and Jones, M. N. (2000). The biodegradation of surfactans in the environment. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 15: 235-251.

Srivastava, V. K., Mishra, B. B. and Tripathi, A. M. (1977). Effect of acid and inorganic salts on metachromasia induced by heteropolyanions. Transition Met. Chem. 2: 106-108.

Standard Methods. (1995). (Eaton, A.D., Clasceri, L.S., Greenberg, A.E. Eds). American Public Health Ass. Washington D.C.

Swicher, R.D. (1963). Biodegradation of ABS in relation to chemical structure. J. Wat. Pollut. Control. Fed. 35: 877-892.

Terzic, S., Hršak, D. and Ahel, M. (1992). Enrichment and isolation of linear alkylbenzenesulphonate (LAS) degrading bacteria from estuarine and coastal waters. Mar. Poll. Bull. 24: 199-204.

Visoottiviseth, P., Ekachote, S., Upatham, E.S. (1988). Microbial degradation of anionic detergent in natural water. J. Sci. Soc. Thailand. 14: 209-217. C.A. 110: 101364 (1989).

Vyazilov, E. and Mikhailov, N. (1999). History of expeditionary studies and information resources for the Black and Mediterranean Seas. International Conference 23-26 Feb. 1999, Athens, Greece.

Wakabayashi, M., Hon-Nami, H. and Kikuchi, M. (1989). Biodegradation of sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in river and sea water. Tokyo-to konkyo kagaku kenkyusha Nenpo 107-173; C.A. 112: 185343 (1990).

Zaitsev, Yu. P. Land-based sources of current anthropogenic change in the Black Sea ecosystem// ACOPS. Assesment of land-based sources of marine pollution in the seas adjacent to the C.I.S., Book of Abstarcts, Sevastopol, 6-10 Apr., 1992, Sevastopool, 1992, 1:38-41 (in Russian) through Polikarpov et al. 1991.