Growth and reproduction of the greater weever (Trachinus draco L., 1758) along the eastern coast of the Black Sea

Orhan Ak, Yasar Genç

Central Fisheries Research Institute, Vali Adil Yazar St. No: 4, 61250, Kasüstü, Yomra, Trabzon, TURKEY


A total of 636 specimens of the greater weever, Trachinus draco, was collected monthly by bottom trawlers in the Eastern Black Sea. In order to identify some biological features of this species in the Black Sea, reproductive characteristics and growth parameters such as sex ratio, maturity stage, length at first maturity, spawning time, reproduction period, age, length-weight relationship, and condition factor were recorded. The female:male ratio was 1:1.04 (x2 : 0.27, x2 0.05,1=3.84; P>0.05). Mean condition factors of females and males were 0.99055 and 0.95625, respectively. Taking into consideration of gonadosomatic index (GSI) and egg diameter, reproduction occurred in July and August. The age at first maturity was 1year and the first reproduction length was 12.01 cm for females. The average diameter of mature egg was 0.91 ± 0.265 mm. Growth parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation were for females and males as follows: L∞ = 32.62 cm, K = 0.18 y-1, to = −1.74 year, and W∞ = 232.54 g, and L∞ = 29.31 cm, K = 0.17 y-1, to = −2.28 year, and W∞ = 232.54 g, respectively. The growth performance index (Ф) was 2.29, 2.17 and 2.36 for females, males and all specimens, respectively. The maximum age was 6 years for females and 5 years for males.

Keywords: Greater weever, Trachinus draco, first maturity length, growth parameters, gonadosomatic index, Black Sea


Abdallah, M. (2002) Length-weight relationship of fishes caught by trawl off Alexandria, Egypt. Naga ICLARM Q. 25 (1): 19-20.

Ak, O. (2009) Fish egg and larvae distribution with egg production and distribution of economic demersal fishes whiting (Merlangius merlangus euxinus Nordmann, 1840) and red mullet (Mullus barbatus ponticus, Ess. 1927) in Trabzon coast. Ph.D. Thesis. Ataturk University, Department of Aquaculture, Erzurum, 151 pp. (in Turkish).

Ak, O., Kutlu S., Aydın, İ. (2009) Length-weight relationship of fishes caught by bottom trawl off Trabzon coast (East Black Sea), Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9 (1): 125-126 (in Turkish).

Ak, Y. (2004) The abundance and distribution of the pelagic eggs and larvae of some teleost fishes in off Erdemli, Mersin. PhD Thesis, Ege University, Fisheries Faculty, 387 pp. (in Turkish).

Ak, Y., Hoşsucu, B. (2001) The abundance and distribution of teleost fish larvae in İzmir Bay. E.U. TrJFAS. 18 (1-2): 155-173. (in Turkish).

Avşar, D. (1998) Fisheries Biology and Population Parametres No: 5. Baki Publisher. Adana, 303 p. (in Turkish).

Bagge, O. (2004) The biology of the greater weever (Trachinus draco) in the commercial fishery of the Kattegat. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 933- 943.

Chilton, D. E., Beamish, R. J. (1982) Age determination methods for fishes studies by the groundfish program at the Pacific Biological Station. Canadian Spec. Pub. Fis. Aqu. Sci. 60: 102.

Coull, K. A., Jermyn, A. S., Newton, A. W., Henderson, G. I., Hall, W. B. (1989) Length-weight relationships for 88 species of fish encountered in the North Atlantic. Scottish Fish. Res. Rep. (43): 80 p.

Çoker, T. (2003) The abundance and distribition of the pelagic eggs and larvae of some teleost fishes in İzmir Bay. Ege Üniv., Fisheries Faculty, Doctoral Thesis, 539 p. (in Turkish).

d’Elbée, J., Castège, I., Hémery, G., Lalanne, Y., Mouchès, C., Pautrizel, F., D’Amico, F. (2009) Variation and temporal patterns in the composition of the surface ichthyoplankton in the southern Bay of Biscay (W. Atlantic). Continental Shelf Research 29 (8): 1136-1144.

Dehnik, T. V. (1973) Ichthyoplankton of the Black Sea, Cernova Moria Haukova, Kiev, 234 p.

Dorel, D. (1986) Poissons de l’Atlantique nord-est relations taille-poids. Institut Francais de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer. Nantes, France. 165 p.

Dulčić, J., Kraljević, M. (1996) Weight-length relationship for 40 fish species in the eastern Adriatic (Croatian waters). Fish. Res. 28 (3): 243-251.

Erkoyuncu, İ. (1995) Fisheries Biology and Population Parametres. Ondokuz Mayıs University, Publisher, Samsun, 265 p. (in Turkish).

Ferreiro, M. J., Labarta, U. (1988) Distribution and abundance of teleostean eggs and larvae on the NW coast of Spain. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 43: 189-199.

Froese, R., Pauly, D. (2007) FishBase version (2012-11) Available at (accessed 06 June. 2011).

Gonçalves, J. M. S., Bentes, L., Lino Ribeiro, P. G. J., Canário, A. V. M., Erzini, K. (1997) Weight-length relationships for selected fish species of the small-scale demersal fisheries of the south and south-west coast of Portugal. Fish. Res. 30: 253-256.

Gökçe, G., Çekiç, M., Filiz, H. (2010) Length-weight relationships of marine fishes off Yumurtalık coast (Iskenderun Bay), Turkey. Turk J. Zool. 34: 101- 104.

Karakulak, F. S., Erk, H., Bilgin, B. (2006) Length-weight relationships for 47 coastal fish species from the northern Aegean Sea, Turkey. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 22: 274-278.

Kınacıgil, H. T., İlkyaz, A. T., Metin, G., Ulaş, A., Soykan, O., Akyol, O., Gurbet, R. (2008) Determining the first reproduction length, age and growth parameters of Aegean Sea demersal fish for the regulation of fisheries management. TÜBİTAK-ÇAYDAG. 327 pp. (in Turkish).

King, M. (1995) Fisheries Biology, Assessment and Management. Fishing News Books, Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd, Oxford, 341 pp.

Mendes, B., Fonseca, P., Campos, A. (2004) Weight-length relationships for 46 fish species of the Portugese west coast. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 20: 355-361.

Merella, P., Quetglas, A., Alemany, F., Carbonell, A. (1997) Length-weight relationship of fishes and cephalopods from the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Naga ICLARM Q. 20 (3/4): 66-68.

Morey, G., Moranta, J., Massut´ı E., Grau, A., Linde, M., Riera, F., MoralesNin, B. (2003) Weight–length relationships of littoral to lower slope fishes from the western Mediterranean. Fisheries Research 62: 89-96.

Morte, M. S., Redon, M. J., Sanz Brau, A. (1999) Feeding habits of Trachinus draco of the eastern coast of Spain (western Mediterranean). Vie Milieu 49: 287- 291.

Moutopoulos, D. K., Stergiou, K. I. (2002) Length–weight and length–length relationships of fish species from the Aegean Sea (Greece). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 18: 200-203.

Muus, B. J., Nielsen, J. G. (1999) Sea fish. Scandinavian Fishing Year Book, Hedehusene, Denmark, 340 pp.

Nelson, J. S. (ed.) (1994) Fishes of the World. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 600 pp.

Pauly, D. (1984) Fish Population Dynamics in Tropical Waters: A Manual for Use with Programmable Calculators. ICLARM, Manila, Philippines, 325 pp.

Ricker, W. E. (1973) Linear regression in fisheries research. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 30: 409-434.

Ricker, W.E. (1975) Computation and interpretation of biological statistics of fish populations. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd. Can.191: 382-391.

Rodríguez, J. M., Barton, E. D., Eve, L., Hernández-León, S. (2001) Mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton distribution around Gran Canaria, an oceanic island an oceanic island in the NE Atlantic. Deep-Sea Research I 48: 2161-2183.

Sangun, L., Akamca, E., Akar, M. (2007) Weight-length relationships for 39 fish species from the North-Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 7: 37-40.

Santos, M. N., Saldanha, H. J., Garcia, A. (2002) Observations on by-catch from a tuna trap off the Algarve (Southern Portugal). Col. Vol. Sci. Pap., ICCAT 54 (5): 1726-1732.

Satılmış, H. H. (2001) The abundance and distribution of the pelagic eggs and larvae of some teleost fishes in Sinop. Ondokuz Mayıs University, Fisheries Faculty, Master Thesis, 90 pp. (in Turkish).

Slastenenko, E. P. (1956) Fishes of Black Sea Basin. E.B.K. Publisher, Istanbul, 711 pp.

Sparre, P. (1992) Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Assessment. Part I Manual. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 306/1. Rev 1. Rome, 376 pp.

Sparre, P., Ursin, E., Venema, S. C. (1989) Introduction to Tropical Fish stock Assessment. Part 1, Manual, FAO Fish. Tech. Paper, No. 306-1, FAO, Rome, 337 pp.

Stergiou, K. I., Moutopoulos, D. K. (2001) A review of length-weight relationships of fishes from Greek marine waters. Naga ICLARM Q. 24 (1/2): 23-39.

Turan, C. (2007) Atlas and Systematics of Marine Bony Fish of Turkey. Nobel Publisher, Adana, Turkey, 549 pp. (in Turkish).

Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M. L., Hureau, J. C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E., (1984) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris, 1473 pp.

Yüksek, A. (1993) Distribution and abundance of pelagic eggs and larvae of teleost fishes in a northern Marmara Sea. Ph.D. Thesis. Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, 143 pp. (in Turkish).

Zar, J. H. (1996) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.