Some aspects of the biology and the present state of the population of Protodrilus flavocapitatus (Polychaeta: Protodrilidae) in the coastal zone of Crimea (the Black Sea)

Vera Kopiy

The Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, IBSS, 99011, Sevastopol, UKRAINE


The annual density fluctuations of the polychaete Protodrilus flavocapitatus (Uljanin, 1877) was investigated in the Crimean coastal zone. The maximum density of polychaete was recorded in December (472 ind.m˗2) and the minimum in July (13 ind.m˗2). In addition, an experiment regarding its asexual reproduction strategy was conducted. Females with eggs were recorded from April to June. It was found that this species can regenerate missed body fragments and the regeneration of the distal end began in the second day.

Keywords: Polychaete worms, Protodrilidae, Protodrilus flavocapitatus, Black Sea

pdf-dl icon


Bacescu, M. (1963) Contribution a la biocoenologie de la Mer Noire l´étage périazoïque et le faciès dreissenifère leurs caractéristiques. Rapports et Procès˗Verbaux Commission Internationale Pour l´ Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Méditerranée 17 (2): 107˗122 (in French).

Bondarenko, O. S. (2010) The description of the present state of polychaete taxocene in the seawater area of Odessa. Proceedings of Ternopol National Pedagogical University. Biol. Series 3 (44): 22˗25 (in Russian).

Davies, J. (1998) Western Channel (Durlston Head to Cape Cornwall, including the Isles of Scilly) (MNCRSector 8). In: Marine Nature Conservation Review. Benthic marine ecosystems of Great Britain and the north˗east Atlantic, (ed. K. Hiscock) Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, 219˗253 pp.

Kiseleva, G. A., Gagolkina, A. V. (2004) The macrozoobenthos of algal beds in the coastal zone of Karadag nature reserve Karadag. The hydrobiological investigations. The collection of scientific publications in commemoration of the 90th Anniversary of the T. I. Vyazemsky Karadag Research Station and the 25th Anniversary of Karadag Nature Reserve of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine Book 2: 141˗151 (in Russian).

Kiseleva, G. A., Konovalov, V. S., Lapchenko, A. A., Kolova, K. A. (2009) The species structure and dynamics of macrozoobenthos in algal associations of Karadag Nature Reserve. Ecosystems, Their Optimization and Protection 20: 57˗66 (in Russian).

Kiseleva, M. I. (2004) Polychaete worms (Polychaeta) of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov Apatity: Kola Research Centre Press RAS: 1˗409 (in Russian).

Kurt, Ş., Çınar M. E. (2012) A check˗list of polychaete species (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the Black Sea. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 18 (1): 10˗48.

Losovskaya, G. V. (1977) The Ecology of Polychaete Worms. Naukova Dumka Publishing House, Kiev, 92 pp. (in Russian).

Marinov, T. M. (1990) The Zoobenthos of the Bulgarian Sector of the Black Sea. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Press, Sofia, 195 pp. (in Bulgarian).

Martin G. G. (1978) The Duo˗Gland Adhesive System of the Archiannelids Protodrilus and Saccocirrus and the Turbellarian Monocelis. Zoomorphologie 91: 63˗76.

Nordheim, H. von (1991) Ultrastructure and functional morphology of the female reproductive organs in Protodrilus (Polychaeta, Annelida). Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 45 (4): 465˗485.

Purschke G. (1990) Ultrastructure of the “statocysts” in Protodrilus species (Polychaeta); Reconastuction of the cellular organization with morphometric data from receptor cells. Zoomorphology 110 (2): 91˗104.

Surugiu V. (2005) Inventory of inshore polychaetes from the Romanian coast (Black Sea). Mediterranean Marine Science 6 (1): 51˗73.

Vinogradov, K. A. (1949) On the fauna of annelid worms (Polychaeta) of the Black Sea. Proc. of Karadag Biostation 8: 18˗56 (in Russian).

Yakubova, L. I. (1930) The inventory of Archiannelidae and Polychaeta dwelling in Sevastopol Bay, Black Sea. Transactions of the Ac. Sci. USSR. Ser. 7. Division of physico˗mathematical sciences 9: 863˗881 (in Russian).

Zaitsev, Yu. P (1982) Contour community seas and oceans. In: Fauna and Hydrobiology Offshore Pacific, Proceedings of the XIV Pacific Science Congress, 51˗54 pp. (in Russian).