Some remarks of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing in Turkish part of the Black Sea
Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P. O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is one of the serious threat for the sustainable fishing in the Black Sea. Due to IUU fishing, ghost fishing, by˗catch, destruction of the benthic ecosystem has been reported. From 1992 to 2012, a total of 65 Illegal fishing cases have been reported in various Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) in the Black Sea. Among these cases, 5 fishermen lost their lives and 2 were wounded in the EEZ. This excessive use of force should be stopped for fishermen and peaceful pursuit should be followed in case of confrontation or in case of arrest. Main illegal target fish is turbot and enforcement of the existing fisheries regulations and laws is necessary for Turkey to halt IUU fishing. Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) system should be developed to reduce illegal fishing practices all Turkish part of the Black Sea. Illegal clam and Rapana dredging is also threat for benthic ecosystem. Anchovy is the largest stocks of small pelagic fish in the Black Sea and contribute the major part of fisheries production in the region, especially Turkey. Its unreported fishing, thus, should be taken into special consideration. Even though IUU fishing in the Turkish part of the Black Sea shows decreasing trend in recent years, concerted actions and international cooperation are essential. Zero tolerance should be the main concept against IUU fishing in the Turkish part of the Black Sea.
Keywords: Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated fishing, Black Sea, turbot
Acara, A. (1985) The Black Sea Turbot. State Planning Organization, Ankara, Turkey. 21 p. (in Turkish).
Agnew, D. J., Pearce, J., Pramod, G., Peatman, T., Watson, R., Beddington, R. J., Pitcher, T. J. (2009) Estimating the worldwide extent of illegal fishing. PloS ONE 4 (2): e 4570.
Barros, P. (2011) Mediterranean and Black Sea. Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. FAO, Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, 569: 77˗92.
Birkun, A. Jr. (2002) Interactions between cetaceans and fisheries in the Black Sea. In: Cetaceans of the Mediterranean and Black Seas: State of Knowledge and Conservation Strategies. (ed., G. Notarbartolo di Sciara), A report to the ACCOBAMS Secretariat, Monaco. Section 10.
Düzgüneş, E., Erdoğan, N. (2008) Fisheries management in the Black Sea countries. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 8: 181˗192.
FAO (2008) Management of fishing capacity and the international plan of action to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. Available at http://www.fao.org (accessed 10 Oct. 2008)
GFCM (2011) Status of the GFCM Actions in the Black Sea. GFCM: SAC13/ inf. 24.
GFCM (2012) Background document on the Black Sea fisheries for the First meeting of the GFCM Working Group on the Black Sea. Constanta, 16˗18 January, 2012. Preliminary version.
INTERPOL Available at: www.interpol.int/crime˗areas/environmental˗crime (accessed 10 Dec. 2012)
Kabasakal, H. (1998) Shark and ray fisheries in Turkey. Shark News 11: 8.
Kara, A. (2012) Turbot fishery. In: The State of Turkish Fisheries (eds., A. Tokaç, A. C. Gücü, B. Öztürk), Turkish Marine Research Foundation Publication, Istanbul, Publicstion number: 35, 400˗418 pp.
Kurumahmut, A. (2001) Legal Status of the Black Sea. Seminar of the Aquaculture. Chamber of Shipping, Istanbul, 86˗87 pp.
Özdamar, E. (1995) A comparative study on constructional characteristics and engine power of Turkish fishing vessel in the Black Sea. Turkish Journal of Marine Sciences 1 (2): 109˗120.
Öztürk, B. (1998) Black Sea Biological Diversity, Turkey. Black Sea Environmental Series Vol. 9, UN Publication, New York. Öztürk, B. (2011) Sea Essays. İlke Kitap, Istanbul. 378 p. (in Turkish).
Öztürk, B., Keskin, Ç., Engin, S. (2011) Some remarks on the catch of anchovy, Engraulis encrasiculus (Linneus, 1758), in Georgian waters by Turkish fleet between 2003 and 2009. J. Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 17 (2): 145˗158.
Pasyakin, V. (1991) The operation “Kalkan” is completed. Kareltny Krym. 78: 4 (in Russian).
Radu, G., Nicolaev, S., Papadopol, N.C., Anton, E., Maximov, V., Staicu, I., Radu, E. (2004) Results of the dolphin monitoring carried out between 2001˗2002. Cercetari Marine 35: 191˗204.
Samsun, N. and Kalaycı, F. (2004) The determination of turbot tangle nets and trammel nets features, catch per unit effort (CPUE) and turbot fishing in Middle Black Sea (Sinop). Journal of SDU, Eğirdir Fisheries, 2: 100˗109 (In Turkish).
Taner, L. (2010) Determination of amount of lost fishing gear which cause to ghost fishing in Istanbul artisanal fisheries. MSc Thesis. Istanbul University, Istanbul (in Turkish).
Tonay, A. M., Öztürk, B. (2003) Cetacean bycatches in turbot fishery on the western coast of the Turkish Black Sea. In: International Symposium of Fisheries and Zoology (In memory of Ord. Prof. Dr. Curt Kosswig in his 100th birth anniversary), (eds., I. K. Oray, M. S. Çelikkale, G. Özdemir), Istanbul, 131˗138 pp.
Topçu, N. E., Öztürk, B. (2010) Abundance and composition of solid waste materials on the wastern part of the Turkish Black Sea Seabed. Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management 13 (3): 301˗306.
Ye, Y. Cochrane, K. (2011) Review of the State of World Marine Fishery Resources. FAO, Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, Roma, No: 569, 32 pp.
Zengin, M. (2000). The Bio˗ecology, Population Parameters and Stocks Assessment of the Turbot (Scopthalmus maeoticus Pallas, 1811) in the Turkish coast of the Eastern Black Sea. Ph. D. Thesis. Fen Bilimleri Ensitütüsü, Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi, Trabzon. 221 pp. (In Turkish).
Zengin, M., Genç, Y., Ak, O. (2012) A preliminary investigation on the state of Turkish fishing fleet on anchovy along north eastern Black Sea (Georgia, Abkhazia) coast. Yunus Araştırma Bülteni 4: 27˗43 (In Turkish).