Determination of batch fecundity of garfish, Belone belone, in the northern Aegean Sea

Tülin Çoker, Okan Akyol, Gökçen Bilge

Faculty of Fisheries, Muğla University, 48000 Muğla, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35440 Urla, Izmir, TURKEY


This study reports the batch fecundity (BF) and oocyte diameters of Belone belone from the Aegean Sea (Izmir and Candarli Bays). A total of 51 female specimens of garfish were collected from January to December 2003. Oocyte diameters (n = 12140) of B. belone ranged from 0.063 to 3.5 mm, concentrating between 0.063 and 1.5 mm. The fish weight – BF relationships according to both hydrated oocyte and oocyte size frequency methods were BF = – 0.3794 W + 192.22 (R2 = 0.037) and BF = 5.165 W – 55.21 (R2= 0.218), respectively. Mean oocyte numbers in the ovaries were 4144 ± 604 with varied from 662 to 15962. Maximum BF was 2130 (mean: 670 ± 97) in hydrated oocytes, and 8189 (mean: 1667 ± 559) in large oocytes. There was no linear relationship between BF and fish weight according to determination coefficients.

Keywords: Garfish, Belone belone, oocyte diameter, batch fecundity, Aegean Sea.

pdf-dl icon


Collette, B. B., Parin, N. V. (1986) Belonidae. In: Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. (eds. Whitehead, P. J. P., Bauchot, M.-L., Hureu, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonose, E.).,Vol. II. Paris: UNESCO, pp. 604-609.

Dorman, J. A. (1989) Some aspects of the biology of the garfish Belone belone (L.) from Southern Ireland. Journal of Fish Biology 35: 621-629.

Dorman, J. A. (1991) Investigations into the biology of the garfish, Belone belone (L.), in Swedish waters. Journal of Fish Biology 39: 59-69.

Froese, R., Pauly, D. (Eds.) (2013) FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication., version (02/2013).

Golani, D., Öztürk, B., Başusta, N. (2006) Fishes of the Eastern Mediterranean. Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No. 24, Istanbul, Turkey, 259 pp.

Goldberg, S. R., Pizzorno, M. C. (1985) Notes on spawning of the fish Belone stolzmanni (Belonidae) from Peru. Pacific Science 39 (4): 367-368.

Gunderson, D. R. (1993) Surveys of fisheries resources. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. N.Y., 248 pp.

Holden, M. J., Raitt, D. F. S. (1974) Manual of fisheries science, Part 2: Methods of resource investigation and their application. FAO Fisheries Tech. Paper No: 115, Rome, 214 pp.

Hughes, J., Stewart, J. (2006) Reproductive biology of three commercially important Hemirhamphid species in South-eastern Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 75 (2): 237-256.

Hunter, J. R., Lo, N. C. H., Leong, R. J. H. (1985) Batch fecundity in multiple spawning fishes. In: An egg production method for estimating biomass of pelagic fish, application to the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, (ed., R. Lasker), NOAA Technical Reports, 36: 67-77.

Korzelecka-Orkizs, A., Formicki, K., Winnicki, A., Bonislawska, M., Szulc, J., Biernaczyk, M., Tanski, A., Wawrzyniak, W. (2005) Peculiarities of egg structure and embryonic development of garfish (Belone belone L.). Electronic Journal of Ichthyology 2: 42-53.

Meriç, N., Altun, O. (1999) The garfish, Belone svetovidovi Collette and Parin, 1970, new to the Aegean Sea. Israel Journal of Zoology 45 (3): 423–426.

Rosenthal, H. (1970) Anfütterung und wachstum der larven und jungfishe des hornhectes, Belone belone. Helgolander wis Meer 21: 320–332.

Rosenthal, H., Fonds, M. (1973) Biological observations during rearing experiments with the garfish Belone belone. Marine Biology 21: 203-218.

Russell, F. S. (1976) The eggs and planktonic stages of British marine fishes. Academic Press, London, 524 pp.

Uçkun, D., Akalın, S., Taşkavak, E., Toğulga, M. (2004) Some biological characteristics of the garfish (Belone belone L., 1761) in Izmir Bay, Aegean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 413–416.

Yüce, R. (1975) Biology of garfish Belone belone (L.). Hidrobioloji Araştırma Enstitüsü Yayınları 75: 1-25. (in Turkish).