Biochemical composition of some brown algae from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey  

Biochemical composition of some brown algae from Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey

Senem Ozgun, Funda Turan

Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY


The present study aimed to determine total protein, total carbohydrate, total phenolic substances and pigment contents of brown algae collected in Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Totally eight brown algae samples (Cystoseira barbata, Cystoseira corniculata, Cystoseira compressa, Dictyota dichotoma, Padina pavonia, Sargassum vulgare, Stypocaulon scoparium, Stypopodium schimperii) were analyzed. The highest protein content was obtained from S. schimperii (65.19±4.32 mg g-1) whereas the lowest protein content was obtained from C. compressa (28.97±3.73 mg g-1). The carbohydrate yields of macroalgae varied from 12.25±1.60 to 47.92±5.66 mg g-1, the maximum carbohydrate concentration was recorded from D. dichotoma (47.92±5.66 mg g-1) followed by S. schimperii (41.92±2.32 mg g-1). The total phenolic contents of algae varied from 0.364±0.04 to 1.312±0.03 mg g-1 and the maximum phenolic substance content was recorded in S. schimperii(1.312±0.03 mg g-1). S. schimperiishowed the highest Chlorophyll-a and Carotene content (4.09±0.60 and 0.536±0.05 mg g-1, respectively) among the brown algae. According to the results obtained from this study, these macroalgae species, especially S. schimperii, can be regarded as a potential source for food, pharmacology and cosmetic industry.

Keywords: Biochemical composition, brown algae, Iskenderun Bay


Ahmad, F., Sulaiman, M.R., Saimon, W., Yee, C.F., Matanjun, P. (2012) Proximate compositions and total phenolic contents of selected edible seaweed from Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia. Borneo Sci. 31:74-83.

AOAC (2000) Official Methods of Analysis. 17th Edition Vol II. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem., Wash. D.C., USA.

Burtin, P. (2003) Nutritional value of seaweed. Electr. J. Environ. Agr. Food Chem. 2: 498-503.

Chkhikvishvili, I.D., Ramazanov, Z.M. (2000) Phenolic substances of brown algae and their antioxidant activity. Appl. Biochem. Micro. 36: 289-291.

Demirel, Z., Yıldırım, Z.D., Tuney, I., Kesici, K., Sukatar, A. (2012) Biochemical analysis of some brown seaweeds from the Aegean Sea. Botanica Serbica 36(2): 91-95.

Dere, S., Dalkıran, N., Karacaoglu, D., Yıldız, G., Dere, E. (2003) The determination of total protein, total soluble carbohydrate and pigment contents of some macroalgae collected from Gemlik-Karacaali (Bursa) and ErdekOrmanlı (Balıkesir) in the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Oceanol. 45(3): 453-471.

Dubois, M., Giles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebors, P.A., Smith, F. (1956) Calorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemist 28: 350-356.

Durmaz, Y., Duyar, H.A., Gökpınar, S., Ogretmen,Y.O., Bandarra, N. (2008) Research on fatty acids, α-tocopherol and total pigment content of the Ulva spp. (Sinop-Turkey, Black Sea). J. Fisheries Sciences 2(3): 350-356.

Gressler, V., Fujii, M.T., Martins, A.P., Colepicolo, P., Mancini-Filhod, J., Pintoa, E. (2011) Biochemical composition of two red seaweed species grown on the Brazilian coast. J Sci Food Agricult. 91: 1687-1692.

Haroon, A.M., Szaniawska, A., Normant, M., Janas, U. (2000) The biochemical composition of Enteromorpha spp. from the Gulf of Gdańsk coast on the southern Baltic Sea. Oceanologia 42(1):19-28.

Khairy, H.M., El-Shafay, S.M. (2013) Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt. Oceanologia 55(2): 435-452.

Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265-275.

Matanjun, P., Mohamed, S., Mustapha, N.M., Muhammad, K. (2009) Nutrient content of tropical edible seaweeds, Eucheuma cottonii, Caulerpa lentillifera and Sargassum polycystum. J. Appl. Phycol. 21(1): 9326-9329.

Mohamed, S., Hashim, S.N., Rahman, H.A. (2012) Seaweeds: a sustainable functional food for complementary and alternative therapy. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 23: 83-96.

Olgunoğlu, M.P., Polat, S. (2007) Seasonal changes of heavy metals in two macroalgae species [Cystoseira corniculata (Phaeophyta), Laurencia papillosa (Rhodophyta)] in Iskenderun Bay. E.U. J. Fisheries Aquatic Sci. 24(1-2): 25-30. (in Turkish).

Ozvarol, Y. (2009) Determination of the Macrobenthic Sea Flora from Eastern Mediterranean Coast of Gazipaşa-Alexander. Master Thesis. Süleyman Demirel University, Science Institute. 130 pp. (in Turkish)

Ozyılmaz, G. (2005) Immobilization and Characterization of Glucose Oxidase and Catalase. Doctoral Thesis, Cukurova University, Science Institute. 175 pp. (in Turkish).

Polat, S., Ozogul, Y. (2008) Biochemical composition of some red and brown macro algae from the Northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 59 (7–8): 566-572.

Polat, S., Ozogul Y. (2009) Fatty acid, mineral and proximate composition of some seaweeds from the northeastern Mediterranean coast. Ital. J. Food Sci. 21: 317-324.

Polat, S., Ozogul, Y. (2013) Seasonal proximate and fatty acid variations of some seaweeds from the northeastern Mediterranean coast. Oceanologia 55(2): 375-391.

Renaud, S.M., Luong-Van, J.T. (2006) Seasonal variation in the chemical composition of tropical Australian marine macroalgae. J Appl. Phycol. 18:381- 387. 134.

Sánchez, M.D., Mantell, C., Rodríguez, M., Martínez de la Ossa, E., Lubián, L.M., Montero, O. (2005) Supercritical fluid extraction of carotenoids and chlorophyll a from Nannochloropsis gaditana. J. Food Engineering 66: 245- 251.

Stirk, W.A., Reinecke, D.L., Staden, J.V. (2007) Seasonal variation in antifungal, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase activity in seven South African seaweeds. J. Appl. Phycol. 19: 271-276.

Taşkın, E., Öztürk, M., Kurt, O., Öztürk, M. (2001) Check list of marine flora of Turkey. Phycologia 40(4): 71.

Vonshak, A. (1997) Morpohology, ultrastructure and taxonomy of arthrospira (Spirulina). In: The Basic Concept Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira) Physiology, Cell-Biology and Biotechnology, (ed. L.Tomoselli), Taylor & Francis Ltd. Great Britain, pp.1-15.

Wijesinghe, W.A.J.P., Jeon, Y.J. (2012) Extraction (EAE) of bioactive components: a useful approach for recovery of industrially important metabolites from seaweeds. Fitoterapia 83: 6-12.

Yıldırım, Z.D. (2010) Determination of Seasonal and Regional Variation of Biochemical Content of Some Cystoseira Species and Other Economically Valuable Phaeophyta Members in Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts. Master Thesis. Ege University, Science Institute. 61 pp. (in Turkish).

Zemke-White, W.L., Ohno, M. (1999) World seaweed utilisation: an end-ofcentury summary. J Appl Phycol. 11: 369-376.

Zou, N., Richmond, A. (2000) Light-path length and population density in photoacclimation of Nannochloropsis sp. (Eustigmatophyceae). J. Appl. Phycol. 12: 349-354.

Zucchi, M.R., Necchi, O. (2001) Effects of temperature, irradiance and photoperiod on growth and pigment content in some freshwater red algae in culture. Phycol. Res. 49: 103-114.