Spatio-temporal patterns of abundance, biomass and length-weight relationships of Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Gymnuridae)in the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey (Levantine Sea)

Spatio-temporal patterns of abundance, biomass and length-weight relationships of Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758) (Pisces: Gymnuridae) in the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey (Levantine Sea)

Elif Özgür Özbek, Mine Çardak, Turhan Kebapçioğlu   

Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, Çiğli Ana Yerleşkesi, 35620, İzmir, TURKEY


The present paper reports the abundance and biomass of Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758) at various depth levels and seasons in the Gulf of Antalya, Mediterranean cost of Turkey. A total of 116 hauls were carried out between August 2009 and April 2010 seasonally in the Gulf of Antalya at six stations and six depth levels (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200 m) using a commercial bottom trawl. From 40 hauls, 172 individuals were sampled and the frequency of occurrence was 41.67% at the depths between 25 and 100 m, but absent at 150 and 200 m. The overall mean abundance and biomass was 27.98 ind./kmand 167.76 kg/km2. Total length-weight (TL-W), disc length–weight (DL-W) and disc width–weight (DW-W) relationship were described as W= 0.031*TL2.93 ; W= 0.064*DL2.94 and W= 0.007*DW3.03, respectively. The highest TL, DL and DW values in the Mediterranean Sea are reported.

Keywords: Spiny butterfly ray, Gymnura altavela, seasonal trawl survey, Antalya, Mediterranean Sea, length-weight relationship


Abdul Malak, D., Livingstone, S.R., Pollard, D., Polidoro, B.A., Cuttelod, A., Bariche, M., Bilecenoglu, M., Carpenter, K.E., Collette, B.B., Francour, P., Goren, M., Kara, M.H., Massutí, E., Papaconstantinou, C., Tunesi, L. (2011)
Overview of the conservation status of the marine fishes of the Mediterranean Sea. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain, 68 pp.

Alkusairy, H., Ali, M., Saad, A., Reynaud, C., Capapé, C. (2014) Maturity, reproductive cycle, and fecundity of spiny butterfly ray, Gymnura altavela (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes: Gymnuridae), from the coast of Syria (Eastern
Mediterranean). Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 44(3): 229-240.

Anonymous (2012) Turkish Fisheries Regulation (TFR) No 3/1. Instructions for the regulation of commercial marine and inland fishery in 2012–2016 fishing period: Notification No. 2012/65. Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, General Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ankara, 112 pp. (in Turkish).

Başusta, A., Başusta, N., Sulikowski, J.A., Driggers, W.B., Demirhan, S.A., Cicek, E. (2012) Length–weight relationships for nine species of batoids from the Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 28(5): 850-851.

Başusta, N., Erdem, Ü. (2000) A study on the pelagic and demersal fishes of Iskenderun Bay. Turkish Journal of Zoology 24: 1-19.

Başusta, N., Kumlu, M., Gökçe, M.A., Göçer, M. (2002) Seasonal change and productivity index of species by trawled in Yumurtalık Bay. E.U. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 19 (1-2): 29-34 (in Turkish).

Bauchot, M.L. (1987) Raies et autres batoides. In: Fiches FAO d’identificationpour les besoins de la pêche. (rev. 1). (eds.,W. Fischer, M.L. Bauchot and M. Schneider). Mèditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Vol. II. Commission des Communautés Européennes and FAO, Rome, pp. 845-886.

Bigelow, H.B., Schroeder W.C. (1953) Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, Part 2; Sawfishes, Guitarfishes, Skates and Rays, and Chimaeroids, Memoir Sears Foundation for Marine Research, New Haven, 588 pp.

Bradai, M.N., Saidi, B., Enajjar, S. (2012) Elasmobranchs of the Mediterranean and Black sea: status, ecology and biology. Bibliographic analysis. Studies and Reviews, General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean, No. 91, Rome, FAO, 103 pp.

Brito, A. (1991) Catalogo de los pesces de las Islas Canarias. Francisco Lemus, la Laguna, 230 pp.

Capapé, C., Zaouali, J., Tomasini, J.P., Bouchereau, J.L. (1992) Reproductive biology of the spiny butterfly ray, Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758)(Pisces: Gymnuridae) from off the Tunisian coasts. Scientia Marina 56(4): 347-355.

Crawford, R. (1993) World Record Game Fishes 1993. The International Game Fish Association, Pompano Beach, Florida.

Çiçek, E. (2006) Catch with Bottom Trawl off the Karataş (Adana) Coast, Examination of Species with Economic Potential. Çukurova University, Doctorate Thesis, Adana, 146 pp. (in Turkish).

Daiber, F.C., Booth, R.A. (1960) Notes on the biology of the butterfly rays, Gymnura altavela and Gymnura micrura. Copeia: 137-139.

Dulcic, J., Jardas, I., Onofri, V., Bolotin, J. (2003) The roughtail stingray Dasyatis centroura (Pisces: Dasyatidae) and spiny butterfly ray Gymnura altavela (Pisces: Gymnuridae) from the southern Adriatic. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83(04): 871-872.

El Kamel, O., Mnasri, N., Ben Souissi, J., Boumaïza, M., Ben Amor, M.M., Capapé, C. (2009) Inventory of elasmobranch species caught in the Lagoon of Bizerte (North-eastern Tunisia, central Mediterranean). Pan-American Journal of Aquatic Sciences 4(4): 383-412.

Filiz, H., Bilge, G. (2004) Length-weight relationships of 24 fish species from the North Aegean Sea, Turkey. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 20: 431-432.

Filiz, H., Mater, S. (2002) A preliminary study on length-weight relationships for seven elesmobranch species from North Aegean Sea, Turkey. E.U. Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 19(3-4): 401-409.

GraphPad Software (2007) GraphPad Prism (Version 5). Available at (Accessed 05.11.2014)

Gurbet, R., Akyol, O., Yalçın, E., Özaydın, O. (2013) Discards in bottom trawl fishery in the Aegean Sea (Izmir Bay, Turkey). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 29(6): 1269-1274.

Gücü, A.C., Bingel, F. (1994) Trawlable species assemblages on the continental shelf on the North Eastern Levant Seas (Mediterranean) with an emphasis on Lessepsian migration. Acta Adriatica 35: 83-100.

Günther, A. (1870) A Catalogue of the Fishes in the British Museum. London, XX + 512 pp.

International Game Fish Association (1991) World Record Game Fishes. International Game Fish Association, Florida, USA.

JICA (1993) Report of demersal fisheries resource survey in the Republic of Turkey. JICA, AFF, JR (63), Ankara, 579 pp.

Lleonart, J., Lloret, J., Touzeau, S., Salat, J., Recasens, L., Sardà, F. (1998) Mediterranean fisheries, an overview, II SAP meeting (Reviewed by Fromentin J.M., Levi D., Stergiou K.I and Tudela S.) Barcelona, 17 pp.

Maigret, J., Ly, B. (1986) Les poissons de mer de Mauritanie. Compigne: Science Nat., Compiègne, 213 pp.

McEachran, J.D., Capapé, C. (1984) Gymnuridae. In: Fishes of the Northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (eds., P.J.P. Whitehead, M.L. Bauchot, J.C. Hureau, J. Nielsen and E. Tortonese) UNESCO, Paris. 1:203-204.

McEachran, J.D., de Carvalho, M.R. (2002) Gymnuridae. In: The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 1: Introduction, Mollusks, Crustaceans, Hagfishes, Sharks, Batoid Fishes and Chimaeras (ed., Carpenter,
K.E.). FAO, Rome, pp. 575-577.

Özbilgin, Y.D., Tosunoğlu, Z., Özbilgin, H. (2006) By-catch in a 40 mm PE demersal trawl codend. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 30(2): 179-185.

Özgür Özbek, E., Çardak, M., Kebapçıoğlu, T. (2015) Spatio-temporal patterns of abundance, biomass and length-weight relationships of Dasyatis species (Pisces: Dasyatidae) in the Gulf of Antalya, Turkey (Levantine Sea). Journal of
Black Sea and Mediterranean Environment 21(2): 169-190.

Özgür Özbek, E., Kebapçıoğlu, T., Çardak, M. (2013) Spatio-temporal patterns of abundance, biomass and length-weight relationship of white grouper, Epinephelus aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) (Pisces: Serranidae) in the
Gulf of Antalya, Turkey (Levantine Sea). Journal of Black Sea and Mediterranean Environment 19(1): 23-45.

Pauly, D. (1984) Fish Population Dynamics in Tropical Waters: a Manual for Use with Programmable Calculators. ICLARM Studies and Reviews 8. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila,
Philippines, 325 pp.

Psomadakis, P.N., Maio, N., Vacchi, M. (2009) The chondrichthyan biodiversity in the Gulf of Naples (SW Italy, Tyrrhenian Sea): An historical overview. Cybium 33(3): 199-209.

Relini, G., Mannini, A., De Ranieri, S., Bitetto, I., Follesa, M.C., Gancitano, V., Manfredi, C., Casciaro, L., Sion, L. (2010) Chondrichthyes caught during the Medits surveys in Italian waters. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 17(1): 186-204.

Salihoğlu, İ., Mutlu, E. (2000) National marine research and monitoring programme, Mediterranean, Marmara Sea, Turkish Straits System, Black Sea and atmosphere sub-projects. 1995-1999 Period Synthesis Report. TUBITAK,
Ankara, Turkey, 449 pp (in Turkish).

Saygu, İ. (2011) Determination of By-catch Rays and Their Survival Rates Caught by Demersal Trawl Fishery in Antalya Bay. M.Sc. Thesis in Department of Fisheries Science, Akdeniz University, 92 pp (in Turkish with English

Serena, F. (2005) Field Identification Guide to the Sharks and Rays of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. Rome, FAO, 97 pp.

Spare, P., Veneme, S.C. (1992) Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment (Part 1). FAO Fish. Tech. Pap., Rome.

StatSoft Inc. (2004) Statistica (data analysis software system), Version 7. Available at (Accessed 29.12. 2011)

Stevens, J.D., Bonfil, R., Dulvy, N.K., Walker, P.A. (2000) The effects of fishing on sharks, rays, and chimaeras (chondrichthyans), and the implications for marine ecosystems. ICEAS Journal of Marine Science 57: 476-494.

Vooren, C.M., Piercy, A.N., Snelson Jr., F.S., Grubbs, R.D., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Serena, S. (2007) Gymnura altavela. IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. ( (Accessed

Weatherley, A.H., Gill, H.S. (1987) The Biology of Fish Growth. Academic Press, London, 443 pp.

Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.L., Hureau, J.C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E. (eds.) (1984–1986) Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. UNESCO, Paris, 1473 pp.

Wigley, S.E., McBride, H.M., McHugh, N.J. (2003) Length-weight relationships for 74 fish species collected during NEFSC research vessel bottom trawl surveys, 1992-99. NOAA Technical Memorandum nMFS-nE 171, 26 pp.

Yankova, M., Pavlov, D., Ivanova, P., Karpova, E., Boltachev, A., Öztürk, B., Bat, L., Oral, M., Mgeladze, M. (2014) Marine fishes in the Black Sea: recent conservation status. Mediterranean Marine Science 15(2): 366-379.

Yeldan, H., Avsar, D. (2006) Sediment structure and occurrence of skates and rays inhabiting in Babadillimani bight located in northeastern Mediterranean. In: The Proceedings of the International Workshop on Mediterranean
Cartilaginous Fish with emphasis on Southern and Eastern Mediterranean (eds., N. Başusta, Ç. Keskin, F. Serena, B. Seret). 14–16 Oct. 2006, Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Pub. No:23. Atakoy Marina, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 35–41.

Yeldan, H., Avsar, D. (2007) Length–weight relationship for five elasmobranch species from the Cilician Basin shelf waters (Northeastern Mediterranean). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 23 (6): 713-714.

Yeldan, H., Avşar, D., Mavruk, S., Manaşırlı, M. (2013) Temporal changes in some Rajiformes species of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) from the west coast of İskenderun Bay (northeastern Mediterranean). Turkish Journal of
Zoology 37(6): 693-698.

Yemişken, E., Dalyan, C., Eryılmaz, L. (2014) Catch and discardfish species of trawl fisheries in the Iskenderun Bay (Northeastern Mediterranean) with emphasis on lessepsian and chondricthyan species. Mediterranean Marine
Science 15(2): 380-389.