Trends and changes of mean, maximum, minimum temperature and precipitation series in Northern Cyprus
Murat Türkeş, Faize Sarış
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Department of Geography, Terzioğlu Campus, 17020 Çanakkale, TURKEY
Seasonal temperature and precipitation series of Girne and Lefkoşa stations in Northern Cyprus were investigated with respect to the long-term trends and changes. Results of the study have led to the following main conclusions: (1) Statistically significant increasing (warming) trends were found in mean temperatures of Girne, while mean temperatures of Lefkoşa were statistically random against to any trend in all seasons; (2) Statistically significant and the strongest warming trend showed up mainly in minimum temperatures at both stations in all seasons; (3) Increasing trends in maximum temperatures were not as strong as in mean temperatures at Girne and in minimum temperatures of both stations; (4) Warmer than long-term average temperature conditions in the series was evident especially after the year 1990; (5) However, precipitation series did not show any significant trend, being characterized mainly by wetter or drier than long-term average conditions.
Keywords: Northern Cyprus, temperature and precipitation, trend, change points and serial correlation
Problems of transport systems serving for Europe-Middle East trades within the framework of EU transport policy and solution proposals
B. Koldemir, S. Özen, N. Akten
I.U. Engineering Faculty Department of Maritime Tranportation and Management Engineering Avcılar Campus Avcılar, İstanbul, TURKEY
This paper is based on the 100/15052003 numbered project of “Efficiency and Added Value Problems of the transportation systems serving for Europe-Middle East transportation lines within the framework of EU” supported by Istanbul University Rectorate The Executive Secreteriat of Scientific Research Projects. Investment and operational standards should be justified in such a way that loss of waiting time and cost increase due to insufficient capacity of sub-transport modes as well as the sum of loss and cost of idle time be minimum or economical. Development and expansion of transport sector and transport modes in Turkey should be taken up and organized in conjunction with socio-economic, macro-economic approaches and ongoing foreign trade relations. Hence, utmost importance and priority is given to productivity of the basic production systems and foreign trade relations as the productivity of the transport sector and systems are primarily dependent upon the other basic and production systems. It is also relevant to stress further that the attention is paid to means and facilities in the field of transport, production and foreign trade of neighbouring countries, Balkan countries, as well as the states of Caucasus, Black Sea, Middle East, Middle Asia and European Community. It is of utmost importance to inaugurate (liner) combined transport services between Turkish and the Black Sea ports within the TRACECA framework. Such an economic activity will certainly necessitate the harmonization and renewal of merchant fleet. Projects to improve and better up reliable and sustainable macroeconomic and trade relations with the countries of the Middle Asia and Middle East regions, and the Black Sea Rim and matching with the macroeconomic structure of Turkey will likely grant a possibility to attract further attention and strengthen relations with the EU. Those countries should pay attention to eliminate bottlenecks and insufficiencies built up due to insufficient capacity of current passenger and cargo transport routes.
Keywords: EU, transport, Policy, planning, demand, transport systems
Fatty acid composition of Beroe ovata (Bosc, 1802)
Melek İşinibilir, Serap Sağlık Aslan, Selin Cumalı, Burak Çoban, Kasım Cemal Güven
Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Marine Biology, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34116 Vefa, İstanbul, TURKEY
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Chemistry Department, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Beroe ovata was collected from Kumkapı, İstanbul, Sea of Marmara. Fatty acids composition of Beroe ovata were determined using GC/MS. Total lipid amount was found as 0.98±0.05 mg/g (n=6). Total saturated; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids percentages were 35.78, 14.11 and 37.09, respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) percentage was 9.75 and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) percentage was 23.01. Docosapentaenoic acid was not detected in Beroe ovata. EPA/DHA ratio was found as 0.42. The difference of fatty acids between the Beroe ovata with Beroe cucumis and Beroe forskalii were detection of 21:0 ve 17:1n-7 in only Beroe ovata This paper is the first study on the fatty acid composition of Beroe ovata.
Keywords: Beroe ovata, fatty acid composition, Sea of Marmara
Traces of historical earthquakes in the ancient city life at the Mediterranean region
T. Levent Erel, Fatih Adatepe
İstanbul University, Hasan Ali Yücel Faculty of Education, Müşküle Sokak No.1 Vefa 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
İstanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Müşküle Sokak No.1 Vefa 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
During the historical periods, the Mediterranean region was divided in several areas, from west to east, the Carian (Menteşe), Lycian (Teke Peninsula), Pamphylia (Antalya Plain) and Cilician areas. Cilician was divided into the Mountains (Taşeli Peninsula) and Lowland Cilicia (Çukurova) regions. Further east behind the Amonos Mountains, Antiokheia (Antakya), was a completely seperate region. All these regions were shaken by numerous earthquakes produced by main fault systems from the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean. The major geological structures are Hellenic Trench, East Anatolian Fault, Ecemiş Fault and Dead Sea Fault in the region. Along with material destruction, earthquakes also result in tectonic rising of lands. This rising fills in ports and speeds up the process of ports getting shallow. Another negative consequence of earthquakes is the drying up of the water sources or the changing of their banks.
Keywords: Mediterranean coast, historical earthquakes, ancient cities
First record of Clathrocorys teuscheri Haeckel [Protozoa: Radiolaria: Polycystina] in the Aegean Sea
Benin Toklu-Alıçlı, Neslihan Balkıs
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134-Vezneciler, Istanbul, TURKEY
Clathrocorys teuscheri is one of the Polycystine radiolarins. It is reported for the first time in the north-eastern Aegean Sea by this study. As this species was previously reported from the sapropel as microfossils in the eastern Mediterranean, it is also first record for Mediterranean recent plankton. The specimen was collected in November 2000 from subsurface (0.5 m) coastal waters with a depth of 30 m, near Bozcaada Island in the Aegean Sea. Primary hydrographic conditions such as salinity (36.0 psu), temperature (16.7 ºC) and dissolved oxygen (9.49 mg l-1) were recorded at the sampling station.
Keywords: Clathrocorys teuscheri, Radiolaria, Aegean Sea
Temporal Variation of Fish Assemblages in Different Shallow-water Habitats in Erdek Bay, Marmara Sea, Turkey
Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Marine Biology, Ordu St. No: 200, 34470 Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
The aim of this study was to invertigate the nearshore fish assemblages in seagrass meadows (Cymodocea nodosa and Zostera marina) and sandy habitat in Erdek Bay (Marmara Sea, Turkey). A total of 24,488 individuals (61 species; 28 families) was recorded. In seagrass meadows, we observed 17,212 (51 species; 28 families) specimens and in sandy habitat 7,276 specimens (45 species; 23 families). Atherina boyeri was the most dominant species. Juveniles or sub-adults represented 48 % of all individuals. The results showed that nearshore shallow waters (0-2 m) of Erdek Bay were used as a nursery area by juveniles. In this place, the abundance of economically interesting species has declined. Erdek Bay should be evaluated for protection, and the current fishery regulation should be revised to sustain the fishery.
Keywords: Fish, seagrass meadows, sandy areas, seasonal variation, nursery areas
Oil pollution in surface water of the Turkish side of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas
Bayram Öztürk, Gülşen Altuğ, Mine Çardak, Pelin S. Çiftçi
I.U Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Marine Biology, Istanbul, TURKEY
Oil pollution of the South part of the Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea was investigated at 48 stations from the Bozburun Peninsula to İskenderun buy, during 17-28 August 2006. The highly carbon concentration of the samples was determined by UVF by using Iraq crude oil and also chrysene as references materials. The oil pollution in examined sea water was 4.16 µg/L in Antalya Bay and 100.33 µg/L in Iskenderun through Iraq crude oil equivalent. The highest polluted areas are Iskenderun, Bozburun and Kalkan.
Keywords: Aegean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, oil pollution, surface water
Latest major developments in shipping finance
E. Cihan Akca
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Science and Management, Department of Maritime Management, Vefa 34116 Istanbul, TURKEY
The ship finance is no more a fixed science than is any other sort of finance. Financial terms, conditions, banks and shipowners become ever more sophisticated. Because shipping is a highly capital intensive industry, with its 32,000 world- wide companies is one of the three most finance intensive industries in the world, about 80 billion dollars per year for financing new buildings alone. The financing of large ocean-going ships are undertaken by banks all over the world, by no means just for owners in their own country. This is so as banks are willing to finance, during boom periods, shipping loans for new buildings but by this way ‘create’ oversupply and thus depress the freight market by their own actions. Therefore, ship values can change by up to 65 percent in a few months. A five year old Panamax bulk carrier, for example, could be purchased for US$ 13.5m and achieve freight rates of US$ 5,500 per day in 1999 while a similar profile vessel was worth US$ 46m and achieved freight rates in excess of US$ 46.000 per day in 2005. For this reason, the shipowner can make, or lose millions of dollars and so can his bankers if things go badly wrong. For these reasons, the principle subject of this study is to examine a significant increase in alternative capital sources in recent years. Debt and equity from the public markets, German KG systems and Islamic finance, can all now be regarded as commonplace in the shipping finance market.
Keywords: Shipping Finance, liberalisation, kommanditgesellschaft, mergers, acquisitions
Air pollution of hydrocarbons exhausted from vehicle in tunnels, bridges of Istanbul and detection of 3-nitrophthalic in seawater near the side of boat
Selin Cumalı, Kasım Cemal Güven
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Vefa, Istanbul ,TURKEY
The air pollution due to exhausted gas from vehicles was studied in tunnels, bridges in Istanbul city and the contribution of exhausted gas from boat to the seawater in Golden Horn. The component of hydrocarbons of fuels and exhausted gas from vehicles was also compared. The gas samples were collected in tubes containing Tenax GR or activated charcoal adsorbent. They were extracted with dichloro-methane and analysis performed by UVF, GC/MS and HPLC. The petroleum hydrocarbon amounts in gas exhausted were from diesel car II 89.40 µg/m3, from car I 13.43 µg/m3, from normal gasoline car 41.43 µg/m3 and from super gasoline car 32.10 µg/m3. The highest hydrocarbon pollution was found in Haşim İşcan tunnel and hydrocarbon amount ranged as 5.30-11.00 µg/m3. During the analysis over 22 aliphatic, 23 aromatic hydrocarbon and nicotine were identified in Haşim İşcan tunnel. In this area carcinogenic, aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene derivatives and toluene were detected. The highest hydrocarbon pollution was found on Atatürk and Galata bridges as 9.65 µg/m3 and 8.36 µg/m3 respectively. For the first time a new nitro-derivate, 3-nitrophthalic acid was detected in seawater near the exhaust pipe of boat and it was proved by GC/MS and HPLC analyses. The adsorbent capacity of Tenax GR with charcoal compared and Tenax GR adsorbed better than charcoal.
Keywords: Istanbul city, tunnels, bridges, hydrocarbon pollution, seawater, 3-nitrophthalic acid
The effect of Ligula intestinalis L. plerocercoid on the growth of bitterling (Rhodeus amarus Bloch, 1782)
Istanbul University, Faculty of Aquatic products, Department of Aquaculture and Diseases 34470 Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
274 bitterlings (Rhodeus amarus) were parasitologically investigated in Sapanca Lake in October and November 2004. It was seen that the 70 of 169 fish in October and 27 of 105 fish in November were infected by Ligula intestinalis plerocercoids. The average weight of the fish infected by Ligula intestinalis plerocercoids was 2.54 g while this value was 2.98 g in uninfected fish. These results show that one Ligula intestinalis plerocercoid decreases the fish gigantism in the ratio of 14.77 percent.
Keywords: Ligula intestinalis, plerocercoid, bitterling, host gigantism