The oil, detergent and heavy metals pollution of Ölüdeniz, Fethiye and Göçek, south west of Turkey
K.C. Güven, B. Öztürk, S. Ünlü, N. Balkis, A. Aksoy, S. Cumali
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Müsküle Sok., 1, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Ordu cad. No:200, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Oil and detergent levels were determined in Ölüdeniz, Fethiye, Göçek and additionally heavy metal level in Göçek. Max. levels of oil pollution found were 1.99 mg/L in Ölüdeniz, 326,72 µg/L in Fethiye and 14,0 I µg/L in Göçek. Oil level exceeded the limit (13 µg/L) in Ölüdeniz and some Fethiye stations and only one station in Göçek. Max. detergent level was found in Ölüdeniz as 44.24 µg/L, in Fethiye as 37.04 µg/L and in Göçek as 25.29 µg/L. Detergent pollution was high in Ölüdeniz. Heavy metals determined at Göçek are 1.58 mg/g, for chrome, 4.6 % for Ferrum, 790 µg/g for Mangane, 19 µg/g for lead, 48 µg/g for copper, 62 µg/g for zinc. Chrome level exceeded the limit value of 100 µg/g. Oil level in sediment of Göçek at station 2 (145 µg/g) is higher than limit value of sediment (10 µg/g).
Keywords: Oil, detergent, heavy metal, Ölüdeniz, Fethiye, Göçek, seawater, sediment
The Bosphorus: Growth of oil shipping and marine casualties
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Müsküle Sokak No.1, 34470 Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
The Turkish Straits, for the last 10 years at least, have been turned into one of the key shipping foci of the world seaborne oil trade. Nearly 123 million tons of oil passed through the Strait of Istanbul in 2002, representing 5 per cent of the world oil trade by sea. Number of crude carriers passed through the Strait that period, up or down, was 6022. The Strait of Istanbul is the most congested sea lanes in the World. On a daily basis an average of 142 vessels (or nearly 12 vessels an hour) navigates through the Strait. When local or domestic traffic is taken into account, almost another 2.000 crossings ‘a day must be added to the figure above. Shipping traffic in the Strait was 4125 transits in the year 1841. There are now an average of 25.000 transits per year in each direction including inter alia, tankers, chemicals, product tankers, LNG and, LPG carriers – the largest size passing through being ISO to 160.000 tonners fully laden or vessels of around 300 metres in length partly laden. Almost one-third of the total transits are the local ships passing through the Strait. ‘ Oil tanker is the ship which appears most likely to cause major environmental damage. In the case that one of the ships involved in a collision accident is a tanker or a vessel carrying dangerous cargo major pollution problem is likely to occur. Similar incidents have also occurred in the Bosphorus, such as with the World Harmony, Peter Zoranic, Norborn, Lutsk, Independenta, Nordic Faith, Blue Star, Nassia, Jambur to mention a few. Around 200.000 tonnes of oil has been spilt into the Bosphorus and its approaches from these casualties alone. Whatever the nature of a casualty, it takes more serious shape and effect in a confined area. Shipping accidents of today have become more “environmental” and the issue has been though than ever for all parties concerned. potential risks and perils already exist in the Bosphorus. With current heavy shipping traffic and growing crude oil shipping, not only is the risk of pollution increasing, but also the probable impact of a tragic disaster. Ships of increased size and carrying hazardous cargo bring further implications on the safety issue.
Keywords: Bosphorus, marine casualties, pollution, tanker
Prostaglandin in algae, investigation on Halopteris filicina (Kütz.) extract
K.C. Güven, Z. Kull, O. Özdemir, G. Kaya, O. N. Ulutin, R. K. Türker
Department of Pharmaceutical Techonology, Department of Pharmnacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Hemostasis and Thrombosis Research Center, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ankara, Ankara, TURKEY
In this work the prostaglandin – like activity was investigated in extract of Halopteris fllicina (Kütz.). The methods used for examination of prostaglandin activity of the algal extract were; ADP, adrenaline and collagen induced aggregation in human platelet rich plasma. The results showed that H. filicina extract, depending on this concentration, inhibited the secondary waves of platelet aggregation induced by ADP and adrenaline and also aggregation waves induced by collagen. Thus it was demonstrated that the algal extract inhibited the secretion of the platelets and mild inhibitory effect was seen on the primary waves. These data showed the indication of PGE1– like activity in H. filicina. This paper is the repeated article on the prostaglandin activity of red algae Halopitis fllicina which was the second report in the literature on prostaglandin activity of algae when published in Acta Pharma Turc. (Güven et al., 1984).
Keywords: Halopteris filicina, prostaglandin E1
Composition of species and biomass of coastal fish around Gökçeada Island (NE Aegean Sea)
Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Department of Marine Biology, Ordu C. No: 200 34470 LaleIi, Istanbul, TURKEY
Biomass of the coastal fish fauna of Gokçeada Island was seasonally investigated at different stations between August 1995 and June 1996. Fish species were collected by means of trammel net and gill net from 6 stations around the island. Biomasses of the 59 species were calculated (260.647 g). Seasonal productivity index (P’) among the stations was determined by means of Shannon-Weaver Index. Productivity index was the highest in the spring at the stations I (P’; 3.995) and III (P’: 3.673).
Keywords: Fish fauna, productivity, Aegean Sea
Investigation on the sediment of Lake Van, Turkey I – oil content
K.C. Güven, B. Öztürk, S. Ünlü, M. Görgün, N. Hanilci
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Müsküle sok., 1, Vefa Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Ordu cad. No:200, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Geology, Avcilar, Istanbul TURKEY
In this work hydrocarbon compounds of sediments were investigated in Lake Van. The samples were taken at 7 stations between 10-320 m depths.The highest oil level was found 4.69 µg/g at the station 2. The compounds identified by GC/MS were in aliphatic groups: 17 saturated, 4 cyclic, 5 unsaturated, 5 alcohol, 1 keton, 3 aldehyde and 4 fatty acids and in aromatic groups: 1 ring 1,2 rings 2 and 1 pregnane (5 beta). The compounds identified as: saturated compounds C5 – C43 are homologue series hydrocarbons, whereas alcohol, keton and aldehyde compounds are microbial oxydation products of saturated hydrocarbon compounds. Aromatic groups; phenol, and oxydation products of furane and benzofurane are oil products. This is the first record for the oil investigation in Lake Van.
Keywords: Lake Van, sediments, hydrocarbons
Two lernaepodids and one pennellid copepod determined on three marine fishes collected in Turkey
Ahmet Öktener, Jean-Paul Trilles
Cihannüma mahallesi Hüsnü savman sok no;22/5 80690 Besiktas, Istanbul, TURKEY
UMR 517 I (Genome, Populations, Interactions, Adaptation), Equipe Adaptation Ecophysiologique et Ontogenese, Universite de Montpellier 2, CC 092, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, FRANCE
In this paper, three parasitic copepods were reported on three different fish species for the first time in the seas of Turkey. The detected copepods are Neobrachiella bispinosa (Nordmann, 1832) on gills of Trigla lucerna; Eubrachiella exigua (Brian, 1906) on gills of Pagellus erythrinus; Lernaeolophus sultanus (Nordmann, 1839) on mouth base of Diplodus vulgaris.
Keywords: Copepod, parasites, Turkish fauna
List of phytoplankton of the Sea of Marmara
Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34118 Vezneciler 34118, Istanbul, TURKEY
In this work, a list of the phytoplankton species in the Sea of Marmara is presented in the light of the previously conducted research. It was seen that totally 168 species, eight at the generic level, had been recorded from this region. Diatoms and Dinoflagellates were dominant in terms of species number, with 76 and 73 species, respectively. Diatoms represented the majority of the population (45.2%), followed by dinoflagellates (43.5%).
Keywords: Phytoplankton, species list, Sea of Marmara
Investigation of karstic cavities by using EM – VLF method
DED. Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysics, Buca, Izmir, TURKEY
Electromagnetic VLF method can be used for the investigation of karstic cavities, which may often be seen along Turkey’s southern coasts, the determination of these cavities which are naturally or artificaly filled or halfly-filled by sea water, natural or artificial. This method is easier and more rapid than some other geophysical exploration methods. In this study, EM-VLF investigation method, which operates between 16 and 25 KHz as considered to be very low frequencies of electromagnetic spectrum, is used along with natural potential and direct current electric resistivity. During the studies, karstic cavities and fault systems related to these cavities and sea water were considered to be the most suitable model representing the region. In this model, structure is considered to be an excessively resistant medium and the fluid that fills the structure is considered to be a conductive medium.
Keywords: Karstic cavities, EM-VLF exploration, Sarıgerme
Investigations on Magnoliophyta at the South Marmara group islands
Ahsen Yüksek, Erdogan Okus
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences Management Muskule sok. Vefa 34470 Istanbul, TURKEY
In this study the distribution of the sea grass located at the South Marmara Group Islands was observed. These species which are under the protection are also important in terms of being oxygen source and the biological diversity. There is a relation between the protections of the sea grass and the biological diversity of the sandy areas. This area was preferred since it has an important role in sea products. The results of this study could be used in the future researches. The most frequently observed sea grass species was Cymodocea nodosa that are widely distributed at sand banks around the archipelago. Upper limit of C. nodosa meadows was ~ 1 m, while the densest structure was encountered at 6-7 m depth. Zostera marina was detected more frequently at sandy substratum of Paşalimanı Island and Araplar location of Avşa Island. Posidonia oceanica distribution, on the other hand, was limited to a very narrow area at Harmanlar location of Paşalimanı Island. This is the first record of Posidonia at the Sea of Marmara. The presence of an isolated, small community at the region is very important since Posidonia is an endemic Mediterranean species and it is also very important to investigate spatiotemporal changes in distribution of the species at the basin. Recent diving surveys (August, 2004) showed the continuity of the community. This is the first record of the Posidonia oceanica existence in the Sea of Marmara in 1986-2004.
Keywords: The Marmara Sea, magnoliophyta, distribution
Oil pollution in Bosphorus, Golden Horn and Sea of Marmara after M/V GOTIA ship accident
Kasim Cemal Güven, Selma Ünlü, Kartal Çetintürk, Erdogan Okus
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Müsküle Sokak 1. Vefa, 34116 Istanbul, TURKEY
The GOTIA ship accident occured on 06 Oct 2002 at Emirgan quay, in Bosphorus, 25 ton fuel was spilled into the sea. In this study the 279 samples of sea water, 6 mussel, 1 alg and GOTIA fuel oil were analysed by UVF and 287 samples by GC/MS and 200 samples by fingerprinting technique. The oil contamination was spread out at Istinye, northern part of Bosphorus at Golden Horn and at Yenikapi (near south end of Bosphorus). The maximum oil levels found after the accident were 813.5 mg/L in Bosphorus is 7.3 mg/L in Golden Horn and 27.4 mg/L at Yenikapi. The oil pollution area related to GOTIA fuel oil was proved by using fingerprinting technique.
Keywords: Oil pollution, GOTIA ship accident, seawater, alga, mussel