The Black Sea: A new transport focus for east-west trade

A. Erhan Bakirci

Istanbul University,Engineering Faculty, Department of Maritime Transport and Management Engineering, Avcilar Kampus, Istanbul, TURKEY


The Black Sea is an inland sea between south-eastern Europe and Asia Minor. It is connected to the Oceans by way of the Mediterranean Sea via the Bosporus, the Sea of Marmara, the Dardanelles, the Aegean Sea, the Gibraltar Strait and the Suez Canal. The Black Sea served as a transport node for many centuries. The Silk Road is one of the World’s oldest and historically most important trade routes and is the longest land bridge of the time between Asia and Europe for more than 1000 years. It lost its importance in times when the security of transit no longer existed. Most of the east-west trade hence shifted to shipping transport through the Suez Canal and Malacca Straits. With the collapse of the USSR in 1991 revitalisation of the Silk Road was taken up and gained momentum. TRACECA (TRAnsport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia) is such a project to connect Europe to Central Asia. It is planned a continuous railway to run from the Yellow Sea to Western Europe via the Black Sea. Black Sea is to be transited back and forth by means of several ferry connections reaching seaport terminals at Northern Anatolia, Georgia, Bulgaria and Romania. TRACECA is designed to provide combined transport services. Combined transport, at the European level, is an individual mode of transport which makes maximum use of the advantages of the various modes of transport, namely railways and shipping and land transport where necessary. Combined transport thus implies the organisation of intermodal door-to-door transport by transferring the goods from one mode of transport to another without changing the loading unit. Ports in the Black Sea rim will gain importance when the TRACECA corridor is fully operational. Ports in the region however lagged behind changes and developments faced mostly with the advent of containerisation; and on the contrary, developments in the transportation modes in the area and nearby have necessitated the port industry be re-shaped for rational service(s) to shipping. The Black Sea has a vast – though not well organised and co-ordinated – hinterland; linking several continents and seas in all directions. In order to attract the shipping traffic by way of direct or feeder type connections, a common but co-ordinated port policy with a well-defined ,long term action plan set forth by the surrounding states’ administrations is needed.

Keywords: Black Sea, Silk Road, TRACECA, transport corridor, combined transport, port

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A Study on the fishes of the central Black Sea coast of Turkey

Levent Bat, Yakup Erdem, Serap Ustaoglu, Öztekin Yardim, H. Hüseyin Satilmis

University of Ondokuz Mayis, Sinop Fisheries Faculty, 57000 Sinop, TURKEY


As a result of eutrophication caused by increased nutrient input via major northwestern rivers during the last few decades, the Black Sea ecosystem has been subject to extreme changes in recent years. Abnormal changes due to altered nutrient balance were reflected in the qualitative and quantitative composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton and also ichthyofauna. The present study was carried out in the central Black Sea coast of Turkey to recognition of the current status of fish fauna. Fish specimens examined in this study were obtained from the shore and offshore of Sinop-Samsun coast between 1997 and 2004, collecting from the commercial catch of vessels at sea or by SCUBA. A total of 94 species belonging to 44 families were identified. Acipenser persicus is recorded for the first time from the central Black Sea of Turkey. Previous records of the species were confined to the eastern part of the Black Sea, it is occurrence at Turkish coast of the Black Sea extends its distribution range to the central Black Sea.

Keywords: Black Sea , fish species, habitat, zoogeoraphical origin

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Marine algae and seagrasses of Giresun shores (Black Sea, Turkey)

V. Aysel, H. Erdugan, B. Dural Tarakçi, E. S. Okudan

Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, Çanakkale, TURKEY
Ege University, Faculty of Science, Biology Department, Izmir, TURKEY


In this study, marine algae and sea grasses in the upper infralittoral zone of the Black Sea coast of Giresun (Black Sea, Turkey) have been examined. Totally 193 taxa have been determined. 18 of them belong to blue-green bacteria (Cyanobacteria), 109 to red algae (Rhodophyta), 33 to brown algae (Ochrophyta), 30 to green algae (Chlorophyta) and 3 to sea grasses (Magnoliophyta). Erythrotrichia investiens, E. vexillaris, Lophosiphonia scopulorum and Spermothamnion repens var. flagelliferum are new records for Turkish shores of the Black Sea.

Keywords: Algae, seagrasses, Giresun, Black Sea, Turkey

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Vol.11 – 2005 – Vol.3

Oil pollution of the Black Sea, Turkish Straits System, (Istanbul Strait, Bosphours, Sea of Marmara, Çanakkale Strait, Dardanelles) and Golden Horn, in 1997-2003
Kasım Cemal Güven, Selma Ünlü, Selin Cumalı, Filiz Nesimigil, Pelin Çiftçi

Marine algae and seagrasses of Giresun Shores (Black Sea, Turkey)
V. Aysel, H. Erdugan, B. DuralT arakçı, E.S. Okudan

A study on the fish of the central Black Sea Coast of Turkey
Levent Bat, Yakup Erdem, Serap Ustaoğlu, Öztekin Yardım, H. Hüseyin Satılmış

Marine algae and seagrasses of Antalya Coastline (Mediterranean, Turkey)
E.Ş. Okudan, V. Aysel

The Black Sea: A new transport focus for east-west trade
A. Erhan Bakirci