Marine protected areas in the high seas of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas, some proposals

Bayram Öztürk

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY


Marine living resources are diminishing in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Sea and marine biological diversity is facing various threats such as overfishing, ship originated pollution, exotic species and by-catch. Designation of High Sea Marine Protected Areas [HSMPA] is believed will improve protection of the marine biodiversity in the Eastern Mediterranean including the Aegean Sea. Concerted action and international cooperation is needed for the joint management effort in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Designation of HSMPA in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas will be examined. Five HSMPA in the Aegean Sea and three in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea are proposed following the criteria in the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), which include uniqueness, life history stages of species, importance for threatened, endangered species and or habitats, vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity or slow recovery and biological productivity.

Keywords: Aegean Sea, high seas, marine protected areas, Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Turkey

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Heavy metals in livers, gills and muscle of Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) fish species grown in the Dardanelles

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu, Derya Güray, Adem Tekinay

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
18 Mart University, Faculty of Fisheries, 17100, Çanakkale, TURKEY


Heavy metals accumulation assessment was carried out in the livers, gills and muscle tissues of the Sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus 1758) fish species grown in an experimental fish farm in the Dardanelles. The concentrations of the metals in muscle are (mg kg-1, dry wt) Al 37±28; Cd 0.19±0.22; Cr 3.5±1.7; Cu 3.0±0.5; Fe 41±0.5; Hg 0.027±0.007; Pb 20±15; Zn <0.01 and Al, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg and Fe were found in the order of liver>gill>muscle while the Pb and Zn levels follows the sequence gill>liver>muscle. These Pb and Cd levels are near the permissible limits for human consumption.

Keywords: Trace metals, fish, livers, gills, Dardanelles

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Heavy metal levels in sea water and sediments of Zonguldak, Turkey

Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Art and Science, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY


Heavy metal levels were measured in seawater and sediment in Zonguldak which is on the Black sea shore of Turkey. The samples were collected near the industrial areas and city beaches. Maximum concentrations of metals dissolved in seawater were found (nM) Cd 15.0±0.98 around Çatalağzı Power Station, Cr 112±8.6 in Alaplı Creek delta, Mn 715±8.3 in Filyos creek delta, Cu 122±1.5, Ni 142±10.6, Pb 39±9.0 and Zn 834±4.1in Zonguldak city beaches. Heavy metal levels in sediment were found as (μg/g) Cd 0.47±0.34, Cr 67.95±27.6, Cu 30.21±9.27, Mn 274.4±74.8, Ni 37.03±13.25, Pb 39.14±11.22, and Zn 84.6±18.5. Heavy metal concentrations were compared with the US EPA limitations and the other localities and seawater found to be highly polluted than the other Black Sea shores and similar to Rize and Hopa waters. According to recommendations of US EPA under the priority toxic pollutants list Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn levels are above the limits in Zonguldak seawater. Metal levels in sediment samples were found as polluted as the estuarine areas of other countries in the region.

Keywords: Heavy metal, sea water, sediment, Black Sea

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Environmental impact assessment of lesser-known creek in Benghazi

Joel Prashant Jack, Ibrahim Al- Ghaweel, Ayman A. Naas


Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for lesser- known creek in Benghazi was taken for initial monitoring to add data base system by taking environmental factors and water variables into consideration in order to evaluate, protect and sustainable use of lesser known creek within the city. Temperature had played a dominant role in assessing the importance of physical factors in setting the vertical limits of zonation pattern in coastal communities. However, the daily warming of creek waters, in addition to that the pollutants present in the creek, with the help of solar radiation, produce warm mixed layer of water during the course of the day. This development of this mixed layer largely depend on wind and surface currents in turn will play a key role for the productivity and also the growth of both phytoplankton and zooplankton in certain areas in the creek. Whereas, continuous addition of pollutants all along the creek especially near fish market lead to decline of water quality and increase of organic matter. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH will determine water quality and the redistribution of flora and fauna in the creek are discussed briefly.

Keywords: Environment impact assessment (EIA), creek, water quality

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Distribution of three cetacean species along the Bulgarian Black Sea coast in 2006-2013

Marina Panayotova, Valentina Todorova

Institute of Oceanology-BAS, “Parvi may”40 Str., P.O.Box 152, 9000 Varna, BULGARIA


Opportunistic observations of small cetacean species were made on board of fishing vessels and the 55-m research vessel “Akademik” during 20 surveys, carried out between April and November over the period 2006-2013 in the Bulgarian Black Sea territorial waters and exclusive economic zone. Over 10733 nautical miles and 1643 hours of survey effort, 289 sightings were recorded. Three cetacean species – bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) were observed. The most abundant species was the bottlenose dolphin – 618 individuals recorded in 120 sightings, followed by the common dolphin – 554 individuals in 101 sightings and 251 harbour porpoises in 68 sightings. The overall encounter rate was 3.18 sightings/100 nm. The distribution of cetaceans in the Bulgarian Black Sea area was associated with the ecological conditions such as prey dynamics, hydrology, ecosystem productivity, and also with some anthropogenic activities. Due to the absence of specialized surveys on cetaceans, the available sighting data help to elucidate the distribution of cetaceans, thus provide the scientific base for the designation of marine NATURA 2000 sites in the Bulgarian Black Sea for the conservation of marine mammals listed in Annex II of the Habitats Directive.

Keywords: Bulgarian Black Sea area, cetaceans, sightings, distribution

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Vol.15 – 2009 – No.1

A new record for Caulerpa mexicana Sonder ex Kützing from Eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey
Hüseyin Erduğan, Veysel Aysel, Berrin Dural, Rıza Akgül, Özcan Balıkçı, Cumhur Miçooğulları, Füsun Akgül

Environmental impact assessment of lesser-known creek in Benghazi
Joel Prashant Jack, Ibrahim Al- Ghaweel, Ayman A. Naas

Heavy metal levels in sea water and sediments of Zonguldak, Turkey
Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu

The effect of sodium chloride concentration on the assay of LAS in seawater by MBAS methods
Kartal Çetintürk, Kasım Cemal Güven

Freshwater and brackish water Malacostraca (Crustacea-Arthropoda) fauna of Sinop and Samsun and their ecology
Mehmet Akbulut, M. Ruşen Ustaoğlu, Ekrem Şanver Çelik

Heavy metals in livers, gills and muscle of Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) fish species grown in the Dardanelles
Burak Coban, Nuray Balkıs, Abdullah Aksu, Derya Güray, Adem Tekinay

Marine protected areas in the high seas of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas, some proposals
Bayram Öztürk