Determination of batch fecundity of garfish, Belone belone, in the northern Aegean Sea

Tülin Çoker, Okan Akyol, Gökçen Bilge

Faculty of Fisheries, Muğla University, 48000 Muğla, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35440 Urla, Izmir, TURKEY


This study reports the batch fecundity (BF) and oocyte diameters of Belone belone from the Aegean Sea (Izmir and Candarli Bays). A total of 51 female specimens of garfish were collected from January to December 2003. Oocyte diameters (n = 12140) of B. belone ranged from 0.063 to 3.5 mm, concentrating between 0.063 and 1.5 mm. The fish weight – BF relationships according to both hydrated oocyte and oocyte size frequency methods were BF = – 0.3794 W + 192.22 (R2 = 0.037) and BF = 5.165 W – 55.21 (R2= 0.218), respectively. Mean oocyte numbers in the ovaries were 4144 ± 604 with varied from 662 to 15962. Maximum BF was 2130 (mean: 670 ± 97) in hydrated oocytes, and 8189 (mean: 1667 ± 559) in large oocytes. There was no linear relationship between BF and fish weight according to determination coefficients.

Keywords: Garfish, Belone belone, oocyte diameter, batch fecundity, Aegean Sea.

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A new jellyfish species in the Turkish coastal waters – Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)

Mevlüt Gürlek, Deniz Yağlıoğlu, Deniz Ergüden, Cemal Turan

Marine Science and Technology Faculty, Mustafa Kemal University, 31220 Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY
Biodiversity Implementation and Research Center (DU–BIYOM), Duzce University, Duzce, TURKEY


Aequorea forskalea Péron & Lesueur, 1810 was recorded for the first time from the Turkish coastal waters. A. forskalea was observed from January 2012 until September 2012 in Iskenderun Bay, the northeastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey. The occurrence of this species in the Turkish coastal waters may be related to its extension from the western Mediterranean waters.

Keywords: Jellyfish, Aequorea forskalea, Turkish coastal waters

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A proposal for new marine protected areas along the Turkish Black Sea coast

Bayram Öztürk, Bülent Topaloğlu, Ahmet Kıdeys, Levent Bat, Çetin Keskin, Murat Sezgin, Ayaka Amaha Öztürk, Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No: 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation, (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Science, Middle East Technical University, P.O.Box 28, 33731, Erdemli, Mersin, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Sinop University, 57000, Sinop, TURKEY
The Ocean Engineering Research Center (OERC), Middle East Technical University, Inonu Boulevard, 06531, Ankara, TURKEY


Marine living resources are diminishing in the Turkish Black Sea whilst marine biological diversity is facing various threats from overfishing as well as illegal, unreported or unregulated fishing, pollution – both vessel and land-based, alien species, marine litter, and climate change. The designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) will greatly improve the protection of marine biodiversity and sustainable fisheries in the region. Five ecologically important sites were recommended for designation as MPAs along the Turkish coast, where currently no MPA exists. These were proposed by taking into account those criteria specified by the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD), such as uniqueness, life history stages of species, importance for threatened, endangered species or habitats, vulnerability, fragility, sensitivity or slow recovery and biological productivity.

Keywords: Black Sea, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), Turkey.

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Preliminary study on a stranding case of Mediterranean monk seal Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) on Antalya coast, Turkey, August 2013

Erdem Danyer, Işıl Aytemiz, Elif Özgür Özbek, Arda M. Tonay

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, 34320, Avcılar, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P.O. Box: 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Antalya Metropolitan Municipality, Karaalioğlu Parkı içi, 07120, Antalya, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No. 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


The Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779) is one of the most endangered mammals in the world. On 15 August 2013, an adult female monk seal was found stranded on the coast of Antalya, Turkey. Previously on 6 July 2013, this seal stranded alive in Historic Alanya Shipyard. Gross necropsy was carried out. The seal was emaciated and were nematodes, cestodes and trematodes found in the gastrointestinal tract. Macroscopic findings indicated that hypovolemic shock resulted in death because of internal bleeding which occurred by verminous intoxication or systemic infection. This paper summarizes the preliminary findings of the gross necropsy.

Keywords: Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus, digestive track parasite infestation.

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Artisanal fishery and seahorses (Genus: Hippocampus) in Turkey

Halit Filiz, Meltem Filiz, Ertan Taşkavak

Faculty of Fisheries, Muğla Sıtkı Koçman University, 48000, Kötekli, Muğla, TURKEY
Emirbeyazıt District, Bulak St., No: 1, D: 1, 48000, Muğla, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, Izmir, TURKEY


This paper presents the first attempt to use an ethnoecological approach to examine issues relevant to seahorse conservation and management in Turkey. Between 1999 and 2008, we visited 32 localities, and interviewed 394 people involved in artisanal fishery. We considered the following aspects as positive for the conservation of seahorses and their habitats: fishers were willing to dialogue with researchers (100%); they recognized the importance of reproduction to the maintenance in the wild (84%), and expressed concern over population declines (76%). Large seahorses are captured because they are accepted by buyers in turictic places. Further researches needed to find out the absolute interactions between seahorses and artisanal fishery to manage seahorses and their habitats.

Keywords: Seahorse, Hippocampus, artisanal fisheries, conservation

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Abdul Malak, D., Livingstone, S.R., Pollard, D., Polidoro, B.A., Cuttelod, A., Bariche, M., Bilecenoglu, M., Carpenter, K.E., Collette, B.B., Francour, P., Goren, M., Kara, M.H., Massuti, E., Papaconstantinou, C., Tunesi, L. (2011) Overview of the Conservation Status of the Marine Fishes of the Mediterranean Sea. Gland, Switzerland and Malaga, Spain: IUCN. 61pp.

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LAS pollution of the Sea of Marmara, Golden Horn and Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus) during 2004-2007

Kasım Cemal Güven, Burak Coban

Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), 34820, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Letters, Bulent Ecevit University, 67100, Zonguldak, TURKEY


In this study, LAS pollution of Sea of Marmara, Golden Horn and Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus) was reported for different depths including the surface and the deep during 2004-2007. Highest LAS pollution for the years were: 243.99 in January 2004 in the Sea of Marmara, 204.86 in Golden Horn in February 2005, 271.40 in January 2006 and 164.64 in February 2007 (µg/l). As a result of this study, it is shown that, waste water discharged into the deep water of Sea of Marmara (Mediterranean Sea water) cannot totally reach to the Black Sea. This problem must be solved. In our opinion the wastewater of Istanbul City should be collected to one station and discharged directly into the deep waters of the Black Sea.

Keywords: LAS, Istanbul Strait, Golden Horn, Sea of Marmara

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Evaluation of non-essential element and micronutrient concentrations in seafood from the Marmara and Black Seas

Halim Aytekin Ergül, Serdar Aksan

Biology Department, Science and Arts Faculty, Kocaeli University, 41300, Izmit, Kocaeli, TURKEY


Determining the presence of potentially toxic elements in the marine organisms inhabiting contaminated environments is important for human health. The present study assessed concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn measured by ICP-MS in fish muscle and liver, as well as in the edible invertebrate parts harvested from the Marmara and Black Seas. Arsenic in 14 out of 18 fish species (i.e. Mullus barbatus, Mullus surmuletus, Psetta maxima, Solea solea, Sciaena umbra, Auxis thazard, Engraulis encrasicolus, Merlangius merlangus, Diplodus puntazzo, Sardina pilchardus, Scomber scombrus, Trachurus meditaraneus, and Trigla lyra) and 4 invertebrate species (i.e. Mytilus galloprovincialis, Palaemon serratus, Penaeus sp., and Ommastrephes sagittatus) and the Cu concentration in Palaemon serratus were determined to exceed values recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization and by the Turkish Food Codex. Non-essential elements are accumulated consistently in the fish muscle tissue, however liver represents dietary alterations. When comparing the present results with other studies, As and Se concentrations in the muscle tissue of Marmara sea fish were found higher than previous study results. Also Fe and Hg concentrations in the muscle tissue of Black Sea fish were found higher than previous study results. Other element concentrations were determined generally comparable or lower with some exceptions.

Keywords: Metal, fish, mussel, shrimp, calamari.

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Determination of limited nutrients in the Turkish coastal waters of the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas

Vildan Tüfekçi, Ersan Kuzyaka, Hüseyin Tüfekçi, Gülsen Avaz, Aslı Süha Günay, Süleyman Tuğrul

TÜBİTAK- Marmara Research Center, Institute of Environment, Gebze-Kocaeli, TURKEY
Institute of Marine Sciences, METU, Erdemli-Mersin, TURKEY


Increased human activities, rapid and uncontrolled industrial development, intensive urbanization have polluted and hence drastically modified the Turkish coastal water ecosystem of North East (NE) Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. Assessments of nutrient budgets and limiting nutrients in aquatic systems are of wide interest because of their fundamental importance in understanding carbon fixation, coastal eutrophication and wastewater management. In this study, the relative importance of nitrogen and phosphorus as potential limiting factors for primary producers during spring and summer seasons of 2009 was investigated in the near surface water along the Turkish coasts of the NE Mediterranean and Aegean Seas by using the 14C bioassay technique. The results of bioassays and nutrient concentrations (DIN, PO4, Si) indicate that phosphorus is primarily limiting factor in the less contaminated, nutrient-depleted coastal waters of NE Mediterranean (including the Aegean Sea). However, nitrogen appears to be potential limiting element in heavily polluted semi-closed coastal zones (Izmir and Edremit Bays of the Aegean Sea) due to large organic and nutrient loads from industrial and domestic sources in the last decades and consequent occurrence of intense denitrification in the elongated Izmir Bay, reducing the N/P ratio in the shallow water column.

Keywords: Eutrophication, nutrients, limiting nutrient, phytoplankton.

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Digenean trematodes of fish in the waters off Gökçeada, the Aegean Sea, Turkey

Ahmet Akmirza

Faculty of Fisheries, Istanbul University, Ordu St., No: 200, 34470, Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


In the present study, a total of 50 marine fish species were examined for parasites and a total of 22 digenean species (Anisocladium fallax, Stephanostomum minutum, Bucephalus varicus, Prosorynchus crucibulum, Anoiktostoma coronatum, Paracryptogonimus aloysiae, Baciger israelensis, Tergestia laticollis, Steringotrema pagelli, Schikhobalotrema, Aphanurus stossichi, Lecithochirium fusiforme, Lecithocladium exicum, Holorchis pycnoporus, Lepocreadium album, Opechono ollsoni, Mesometra orbicularis, Elstia stossichianum, Helicometra fasciata, Opecoeloides furcatus, Pachycreadiıum carnosum, Bathycreadium sp.) belonging to ten families (Acanthostomidae, Bucephalidae, Cryptogonimidae, Faustulidae, Fellodistomidae, Haplosplanchnidae, Hemiuridae, Lepocreadiidae, Mesometridae, Opecoelidae) were identified in 19 fish species.

Keywords: Digenea, fish parasites, Gökçeada

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Vol.19 – 2013 – No.3

Determination of limited nutrients in the Turkish coastal waters of the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas
Vildan Tüfekçi, Ersan Kuzyaka, Hüseyin Tüfekçi, Gülsen Avaz, Aslı Süha Günay, Süleyman Tuğrul
Artisanal fishery and seahorses (Genus: Hippocampus) in Turkey
Halit Filiz, Meltem Filiz, Ertan Taşkavak
A proposal for new marine protected areas along the Turkish Black Sea coast
Bayram Öztürk, Bülent Topaloğlu, Ahmet Kıdeys, Levent Bat, Çetin Keskin, Murat Sezgin, Ayaka Amaha Öztürk, Ahmet Cevdet Yalciner