Chemical composition of the essential oil of sea fennel seed (Crithmum maritimum L.) from Turkey

Chemical composition of the essential oil of sea fennel seed (Crithmum maritimum L.) from Turkey

 Funda Turan, M. Kemal Sangun, Ayşegül Ergenler

Faculty of Marine Science and Technology, Iskenderun Technical University, Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Hatay Mustafa Kemal, Hatay, TURKEY

 ORCID IDs: F.T. 0000-0002-0257-6009; M.K.S. 0000-0001-5023-3935; A.E. 0000-0001-9186-3909


This study was carried out to determine the essential oil composition of the sea fennel, Crithmum maritimum seed collected from Arsuz, Hatay (Turkey). The components of the essential oil were identified through GC/MS. The identity of 23 compounds of the essential oil was confirmed and their relative proportion was determined. The yield of essential oil was found 0.6%. Monoterpenic hydrocarbons: sabinene (43.29%), p-cymene (13.27%), α-phellandrene (13.16%), α-pinene (10.58%) and γ-terpinene (10.56%) were major compounds in essential oil of sea fennel seed. Sabinene has the highest percentage composition in the C. maritimum seed essential oil (43.29%). It is suggested that the sea fennel seed can be used as a trading source for commercial cultivation and potential medicinal uses of C.maritimum in Turkey.

Keywords: Sea fennel, Crithmum maritimum, essential oils, GC/MS

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Observations on the flowering and fruit developments in Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) in the Aegean Sea (Turkey)

Observations on the flowering and fruit developments in Halophila stipulacea (Hydrocharitaceae) in the Aegean Sea (Turkey)

Berrin Dural, Emine Şükran Okudan, Nilsun Demir, Ayhan Şenkardeşler, Hüseyin Erduğan, Veysel Aysel

Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Ege University, 35100, Izmir, TURKEY
Department of Basic Aquatic Science, Faculty of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries, Akdeniz University, Antalya, TURKEY
Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06110 Ankara, TURKEY
Biology Department, Faculty of Science and Arts, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, TURKEY
Department Biology, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir, TURKEY

ORCID IDs: B.D. 0000-0002-9379-7922; E.Ş.O. 0000-0001-5309-7238; N.D. 0000-0002-3895-7655; A.Ş. 0000-0001-6294-0389; H.E. 0000 0002 7047 6640; V.A. 0000-0003-3668-7046


The flowering and fruiting of Halophila stipulacea (Forsskål) Ascherson were followed on the Turkish coasts of the Aegean Sea, and both male and female flowers were recorded at the same location for the first time. Male and female flowers were found between mid-April and late September. In shallow coastal water, male flowers were fewer than female flowers, while in deep zones, female flowers were fewer than male flowers. The female flowers of H. stipulacea had three styles, but four styles of flowers were also found exceptionally. At the research stations, the plants and flowers showed a lower limit of 30 m depth and an upper limit of between 1 and 8 m. The upper limit of female plants was 4 m, and that of male plants was 6 m. Besides, flowering was recorded generally in very dense populations.

Keywords: Flower development, flowering, fruiting, pollen grain, pollination, seagrass

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