Vertical and temporal distribution of phytoplankton marker pigments during massive mucilage event

Vertical and temporal distribution of phytoplankton marker pigments during massive mucilage event

Yaprak Gürkan, Ahsen Yüksek

ORCID IDs: Y.G. 0000-0001-7949-3001; A.Y. 0000-0001-7949-3001

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, İstanbul University, 34134 Vefa/İstanbul, TÜRKİYE


This study examines the temporal and vertical distribution of phytoplankton marker pigments in coastal marine ecosystem for one year. Chl-a had high masses in the upper layer, except in June 2021. Chl c1+c2 peaked at 0.75 µg L-1 in April 2021 above 20 m. Frequent pigment, fucoxanthin, reached its highest mass of 0.66 µg L-1 in April 2021 within upper 20 m. Peridinin’s peak values were 0.28 µg L-1 in January 2021. Temperature had a negative correlation with pigments, particularly with fucoxanthin (r= -0.5). Fucoxanthin exhibited strong positive correlations with chl-a and chl-c1+c2 (r = ~0.75), and peridinin correlated with ß-carotene (r=0.67). Median pigment values within the first 10 m were slightly lower than the first 20 m. Pigment mass within 20-38 m was notably lower than 10-38 m. An increasing chl-a pattern from November 2020 to March 2021, with fluctuations thereafter was detected. Permutational multivariate variance analysis showed significant differences (p<0.05) in marker pigment masses between sampling months. This study illuminates the intricate temporal and vertical dynamics of phytoplankton marker pigments, providing insights into the phytoplankton activity in the central İzmit Bay during a mucilage ongoing period. 

Keywords: The Sea of Marmara, phytoplankton marker pigments, chlorophylls, fucoxanthin, İzmit Bay

pdf-dl icon


Ağirbas, E., Feyzioglu, A.M., Kopuz, U., Llewellyn, C.A. (2015) Phytoplankton community composition in the south-eastern Black Sea determined with pigments measured by HPLC-CHEMTAX analyses and microscopy cell counts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(1): 35-52.

Aktan, Y., Dede, A., Çiftci, P.S. (2008) Mucilage event associated with diatoms and dinoflagellates in Sea of Marmara. Harmful Algae News 36: 1-3.

Aktan, Y., Tüfekçi, V., Tüfekçi, H., Aykulu, G. (2005) Distribution patterns, biomass estimates and diversity of phytoplankton in İzmit Bay (Turkey). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 64(2-3): 372-384.

Altiok, H., Can, L., Mutlu, S. (2020) Daily variations in stratification in İzmit Bay. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 29(5): 815-829.

Balci, M., Balkis, N. (2017) Assessment of phytoplankton and environmental variables for water quality and trophic state classification in the Gemlik Gulf, Marmara Sea (Turkey). Marine Pollution Bulletin 115(1–2): 172-189.

Balkis, N., Atabay, H., Türetgen, I., Albayrak, S., Balkis, H., Tüfekçi, V. (2011) Role of single-celled organisms in mucilage formation on the shores of Büyükada Island (the Marmara Sea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 91: 771-781.

Balkıs, N., Toklu-Alıçlı, B. (2014) Changes in phytoplankton community structure in the Gulf of Bandirma, Marmara Sea in 2006-2008. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 23(12): 2976 – 2983

Balkis-Ozdelice, N., Durmuş, T., Balci, M. (2021) A preliminary study on the intense pelagic and benthic mucilage phenomenon observed in the Sea of Marmara. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8(4): 414-422.

Bayram, F. (2022) Investigation of Phytoplankton Composition of İzmit Bay and the Northeastern Marmara Sea with Water Quality Variables. Ph.D. Thesis, Istanbul University Institute of Marine Sciences and Management (in Turkish).

Beşiktepe, Ş.T., Sur, H.I., Özsoy, E., Latif, M.A., Oǧuz, T., Ünlüata, Ü. (1994) The circulation and hydrography of the Marmara Sea. Progress in Oceanography 34(4): 285-334.

Bianchi, T.S., Rolff, C., Widbom, B., Elmgren, R. (2002) Phytoplankton pigments in Baltic Sea seston and sediments: seasonal variability, fluxes, and transformations. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 55(3): 369-383.

Dursun, F., Tas, S., Bayram Partal, F., Ediger, D. (2020) Determination of phytoplankton composition by microscopy and HPLC-derived pigment analysis in the Sea of Marmara. Mediterranean Marine Science 21(3): 653-663.

Dursun, F., Tas, S., Ediger, D. (2021) Assessment of phytoplankton group composition in the Golden Horn Estuary (Sea of Marmara, Turkey) determined with pigments measured by HPLC-CHEMTAX analyses and microscopy. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 101(4): 649-665.

Ediger, D., Beken, Ç., Yüksek, A., Tuğrul, S. (2016) Eutrophication in the Sea of Marmara. In: The Sea of Marmara Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance, (eds., Özsoy, E., Çağatay, M.N., Balkıs, N., Balkıs, N., Öztürk, B.). Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 42, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 723-736.

Ediger, D., Raine, R., Weeks, A.R., Robinson, I.S., Sagan, S. (2001) Pigment signatures reveal temporal and regional differences in taxonomic phytoplankton composition off the west coast of Ireland. Journal of Plankton Research 23(8): 893-902.

Ediger, D., Soydemir, N., Kideys, A.E. (2006) Estimation of phytoplankton biomass using HPLC pigment analysis in the southwestern Black Sea. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 53(17-19): 1911-1922.

Ergül, H.A., Aksan, S., İpşiroğlu, M. (2018) Assessment of the consecutive harmful dinoflagellate blooms during 2015 in the Izmit Bay (the Marmara Sea). Acta Oceanologica Sinica 37(8): 91-101.

Flander-Putrle, V., Malej, A. (2008) The evolution and phytoplankton composition of mucilaginous aggregates in the northern Adriatic Sea. Harmful Algae 7(6): 752-761.

Flander-Putrle, V., Terszic, S., Malej, A., Ahel, M. (2000) Effects of mucilage event on the distribution of summer phytoplankton as reflected by phytoplankton pigments. Periodicum Biologorium 102(2): 169-177.

Flombaum, P., Gallegos, J.L., Gordillo, R.A., Rincón, J., Zabala, L.L., Jiao, N., Karl, D.M., Li, W.K.W., Lomas, M.W., Veneziano, D., Vera, C.S., Vrugt, J.A., Martiny, A.C. (2013) Present and future global distributions of the marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(24): 9824-9829.

Giani, M., Rinaldi, A., Degobbis, D. (2005) Mucilages in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea: an introduction. The Science of the Total Environment 353(1-3): 3-9.

Jeffrey, S., Mantoura, R., Wright, S. (1997) Phytoplankton Pigments in Oceanography: Guidelines to Modern Methods. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris, France.

Joint, I., Henriksen, P., Fonnes, G.A., Bourne, D., Thingstad, T.F., Riemann, B. (2002) Competition for inorganic nutrients between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in nutrient manipulated mesocosms. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 29(2): 145-159.

Juin, C., Bonnet, A., Nicolau, E., Bérard, J.B., Devillers, R., Thiéry, V., Cadoret, J.P., Picot, L. (2015) UPLC-MSE Profiling of phytoplankton metabolites: application to the identification of pigments and structural analysis of metabolites in Porphyridium purpureum. Marine Drugs 13(4): 2541-2558.

Kanamoto, A., Kato, Y., Yoshida, E., Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. (2021) Development of a method for fucoxanthin production using the haptophyte marine microalga Pavlova sp. OPMS 30543. Marine Biotechnology 23(2): 331-341.

Konucu, M., Eker-Develi, E., Örek, H., Başduvar, Ş. (2019) Microalgal pigments and their relation with phytoplankton carbon biomass on the northeastern Mediterranean Sea shore, with special emphasis on nanophytoplankton. Preprint in BioRxiv 745588. doi: (accessed 10 Aug 2023).

Konucu, M., Eker-Develi, E., Örek, H., Başduvar, Ş., Kideys, A.E. (2022) Marker pigments and carbon biomass of phytoplankton on the northeastern Mediterranean Sea coast. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 550: 151718.

Küçük, A., Ergül, H.A. (2011) Seasonal variations of microplankton compositionin İzmit Bay (Sea of Marmara). Journal of Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 17(3): 216-222.

Lagaria, A., Mandalakis, M., Mara, P., Frangoulis, C., Karatsolis, B.T., Pitta, P., Triantaphyllou, M., Tsiola, A., Psarra, S. (2017) Phytoplankton variability and community structure in relation to hydrographic features in the NE Aegean frontal area (NE Mediterranean Sea). Continental Shelf Research 149: 124-137.

Mantoura, R.F.C., Llewellyn, C.A. (1983) The rapid determination of algal chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments and their breakdown products in natural waters by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Analytica Chimica Acta 151(C): 297-314.

Marty, J.C., Chiavérini, J., Pizay, M.D., Avril, B. (2002) Seasonal and interannual dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton pigments in the western Mediterranean Sea at the DYFAMED time-series station (1991–1999). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 49(11): 1965-1985.

Morkoç, E., Okay, O. S., Tolun, L., Tüfekçi, V., Tüfekçi, H., Legoviç, T. (2001) Towards a clean Izmit Bay. Environment International 26(3): 157-161.

Nadushan, M., Hosseinzade, I.R. (2020) Optimization of production and antioxidant activity of fucoxanthin from marine haptophyte algae, Isochrysis galbana. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences 19(6): 2901-2908.

Öztürk, İ.D., Ediger, D. (2023) Effects of mucilage on the optical properties of water column in the Sea of Marmara. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 29(1): 73–86.

Öztürk, İ.D., Mutlu, S., Kaman, G., Partal, F.B., Demirtaş, A., Caglar, S., Kuzyaka, E., Altiok, H., Ediger, D. (2021) Vertical distribution of mucilage typology in the water column after a massive mucilage formation in the surface waters of the Sea of Marmara. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 27(2): 184-201.

Paerl, H.W., Valdes, L. M., Pinckney, J. L., Piehler M. F., Dyble, J., Moisander. P.H. (2003) Phytoplankton photopigments as indicators of estuarine and coastal eutrophication. BioScience 53(10): 953-964.

Pan, X., Mannino, A., Russ, M.E., Hooker, S.B., Harding, L.W. (2010) Remote sensing of phytoplankton pigment distribution in the United States northeast coast. Remote Sensing of Environment 114(11): 2403-2416.

Pekey, H. (2006) The distribution and sources of heavy metals in Izmit Bay surface sediments affected by a polluted stream. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(10): 1197-1208.

Riley, J.P., Wilson, T.R.S. (1967) The pigments of some marine phytoplankton species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 47(2): 351-362.

Savun-Hekimoğlu, B., Gazioğlu, C. (2021) Mucilage Problem in the semi-enclosed seas recent outbreak in the Sea of Marmara. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8(4): 402-413.

Schlitzer, R. (2022) Ocean Data View., 2022.

Schlüter, L., Møhlenberg, F., Havskum, H., Larsen, S. (2000) The use of phytoplankton pigments for identifying and quantifying phytoplankton groups in coastal areas: testing the influence of light and nutrients on pigment/chlorophyll a ratios. Marine Ecology Progress Series 192: 49-63.

Seoane, S., Garmendia, M., Revilla, M., Borja, Á., Franco, J., Orive, E., Valencia, V. (2011) Phytoplankton pigments and epifluorescence microscopy as tools for ecological status assessment in coastal and estuarine waters, within the Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin 62(7): 1484-1497.

Serive, B., Nicolau, E., Bérard, J.B., Kaas, R., Pasquet, V., Picot, L., Cadoret, J.P. (2017) Community analysis of pigment patterns from 37 microalgae strains reveals new carotenoids and porphyrins characteristic of distinct strains and taxonomic groups. PLoS ONE 12(2): e0171872.

Tas, S. (2015) A prolonged red tide of Heterocapsa triquetra (Ehrenberg) F. Stein (Dinophyceae) and phytoplankton succession in a eutrophic estuary in Turkey. Mediterranean Marine Science 16(3): 621-627.

Tas, S., Yilmaz, I.N. (2015) Potentially harmful microalgae and algal blooms in a eutrophic estuary in Turkey. Mediterranean Marine Science 16(2): 432-443.

Tolun, L.G., Ergenekon, S., Hocaoglu, S.M., Donertas, A.S., Cokacar, T., Husrevoglu, S., Polat Beken, Ç., Baban, A. (2012) Socioeconomic response to water quality: a first experience in science and policy integration for the Izmit Bay coastal system. Ecology and Society 17(3): 40, doi:

Tüfekçi, V., Balkis, N., Polat Beken, Ç., Ediger, D., Mantikçi, M. (2010) Phytoplankton composition and environmental conditions of the mucilage event in the Sea of Marmara. Turkish Journal of Biology 34(2): 199-210.

Uysal, Z., Ünsal, M. (1996) Spatial distribution of net diatoms along adjacent water masses of different origin. Turkish Journal of Botany 20: 519-527.

Ünlülata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A., Özsoy, E. (1990) On the Physical Oceanography of the Turkish Straits. In: The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, (eds., Pratt, L.J.), NATO ASI Series, vol 318. Springer, Dordrecht, pp. 25-60.

Vidussi, F., Marty, J.C., Chiavérini, J. (2000) Phytoplankton pigment variations during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers 47(3): 423-445.

Wong, K.C., Wong, K.C. (2004) Study of phytoplankton characteristics in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong, by HPLC analysis of chemotaxonomic pigments. Journal of Applied Phycology 16(6): 469-476.

Wright, S.W., Jeffrey, S.W. (2006) Pigment Markers for Phytoplankton Production. In: Marine Organic Matter: Biomarkers, Isotopes and DNA, (eds., Volkman, J.K.), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 2N. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 71-104.

Checklist of sponges (Porifera) in the Aegean and Levantine Seas

Checklist of sponges (Porifera) in the Aegean and Levantine Seas

Alper Evcen, Bülent Topaloğlu, Melih Ertan Çinar

 ORCID IDs: A.E. 0000-0003-1134-2551; M.E.Ç. 0000-0002-1802-2801; B.T. 0000-0001-6620-8072

The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Türkiye (TÜBİTAK) Marmara Research Center, 21 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli, TÜRKİYE
Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Istanbul University, Onaltı Mart Şehitleri Cad. No: 2, 34134, Fatih/Istanbul, TÜRKİYE
Department of Hydrobiology, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, İzmir, TÜRKİYE
SERPULA Marine Research Limited Company, Teknopark Izmir, Urla, İzmir, TÜRKİYE


This study compiled data on the distribution of sponge species along the coasts of countries bordering the Levantine and Aegean Seas (eastern Mediterranean). The checklist comprises 313 species belonging to 67 families, 23 orders, and 4 classes. Out of these species, 37 species are endemic to the Eastern Mediterranean and 77 species are endemic to the Mediterranean. The orders, namely Tetractinellida (44 species), Haplosclerida (36 species), Suberitida (35 species), Poecilosclerida (34 species) and Dictyoceratida (31 species) have the highest number of species in the region. The Aegean coast of Greece has the highest number of sponge species (231 species), followed by the Aegean coast of Türkiye (129 species) and the Levantine coast of Israel (65 species). Due to the limited number of studies performed on sponges, the lowest number of species were found along the Libyan and Syrian coasts. Among the sponges reported, four species, namely Geodia micropuntata, Amphimedon chloros, Niphates toxifera and Paraleucilla magna appear to be alien species in the regions. A total of 14 sponge species listed as endangered or threatened species according to the Bern (1979) and Barcelona (2013) conventions have been recorded in the regions.

Keywords: Sponges, Porifera, Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean Sea, Levantine Sea, check-list

pdf-dl icon


Abed, C., Legrave, N., Dufies, M., Robert, G., Guérineau, V., Vacelet, J., Auberger, P., Amade, P., Mehiri, M. (2011) A new hydroxylated nonaprenylhydroquinone from the Mediterranean marine sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus. Marine Drugs 9(7): 1210-1219.

Aguilar, R., Perry, A.L., García, S., Álvarez, H., Blanco, J., Bitar, G.K. (2018) 2016 Deep-sea Lebanon Expedition: Exploring Submarine Canyons. Oceana, Madrid. doi: 10.31230/

Aktas, N., Genc, Y., Gozcelioglu, B., Konuklugil, B., Harput, U.S. (2013) Radical scavenging effect of different marine sponges from Mediterranean coasts. Records of Natural Products 7(2): 96.

Altuğ, G., Aktan, Y., Oral, M., Topaloğlu, B., Dede, A., Keskin, Ç., Çiftçi, P.S. (2011) Biodiversity of the northern Aegean Sea and southern part of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey. Marine Biodiversity Records 4: e651: 1-17.

Ammar, I. (2010) Distribution of zoobenthos in vermetid platforms of Syrian shore Levant. Tishreen University Journal for Research and Scientific Studies – Biological Sciences Series 32: 5.

Ammar, I., Fadel, S. (2017) Update list of sponges of Lattakia (Syria)-New record exotic species. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 5(2): 1041-1047.

Antoniadou, C., Voultsiadou, E., Chintiroglou, C. (2006) Sublittoral megabenthos along cliffs of different profile (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean). Belgian Journal of Zoology 136(1): 69.

Bell, J. J., McGrath, E., Biggerstaff, A., Bates, T., Cárdenas, C. A., Bennett, H. (2015) Global conservation status of sponges. Conservation Biology 29(1): 42-53.

Bertolino, M., Costa, G., Ruocco, N., Esposito, R., De Matteo, S., Zagami, G., Costantini, M. (2022) First certain record of Demospongiae class (Porifera) alien species from the Mediterranean Sea. Marine Genomics 63: 100951.

Bianchi, C.N., Morri, C., Pronzato, R. (2014) The other side of rarity: recent habitat expansion and increased abundance of the horny sponge Ircinia retidermata (Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) in the southeast Aegean. Italian Journal of Zoology 81(4): 564-570.

Bitar, G., Kouli-Bitar, S. (2001) Nouvelles données sur la faune et la flore benthiques de la côte Libanaise. Migration Lessepsienne. Thalassia Salentina 25: 71-74.

Bodenheimer, F.S. (1935) Animal life in Palestine. L. Mayer, Jerusalem, P.O.B. 932.

Boury-Esnault, N., Vacelet, J., Reiswig, H.M., Fourt, M., Aguilar, R., Chevaldonné, P. (2015) Mediterranean hexactinellid sponges, with the description of a new Sympagella species (Porifera, Hexactinellida). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 95(7): 1353-1364.

Bowerbank, J.S. (1873) Report on a collection of sponges found at Ceylon by E.W.H. Holdsworth, Esq. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1873: 25-32.

Burton, M. (1926) Cambridge Expedition to the Suez Canal, III. Report on the sponges. Transactions of the Zoological Society 22: 71-83.

Burton, M. (1936) The fishery ground near Alexandria. IX. Sponges. Notes and Memoirs of the Fisheries Research Directorate. Cairo 17: 1-28.

Calcinai, B., Sacco Perasso, C., Davidde Petriaggi, B., Ricci, S. (2019) Endolithic and epilithic sponges of archaeological marble statues recovered in the Blue Grotto, Capri (Italy) and in the Antikythera shipwreck (Greece). Facies 65(2): 21.

Carteron, S. (2002) Etude taxonomique des Spongiaires du Liban. Rapport de Maitrise, Centre d’Océanologie de Marseille pp 1-26 (in French).

Castritsi-Catharios, J., van Soest, R.W.M., Kefalas, E., Vacelet, J. (2011) Revised description of a poorly known Mediterranean Dictyoceratid bath sponge, Spongia (Spongia) zimocca (Schmidt, 1862) (Porifera: Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida). Zootaxa 2812: 41-62.

Cárdenas, P., Vacelet, J., Chevaldonné, P., Pérez, T., Xavier, J.R. (2018) From marine caves to the deep sea, a new look at Caminella (Demospongiae, Geodiidae) in the Atlanto-Mediterranean region. Zootaxa 4466(1): 174-196.

Chianese, G., Silber, J., Luciano, P., Merten, C., Erpenbeck, D., Topaloglu, B., Tasdemir, D. (2017) Antiprotozoal linear furanosesterterpenoids from the marine sponge Ircinia oros. Journal of Natural Products 80(9): 2566-2571.

Coll, M., Piroddi, C., Steenbeek, J., Kaschner, K., Ben Rais Lasram, F., Aguzzi, J., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C.N., Corbera, J., Dailianis, T., Danovaro, R., Estrada, M., Froglia, C., Galil, B.S., Gasol, J.M., Gertwagen, R., Gil, J.,Guilhaumon, F., Kesner–Reyes, K., Kitsos, M.S., Koukouras, A.,Lampadariou, N., Laxamana, E., Lopez de la Cuadra, C.M., Lotze, H.K., Martin, D., Mouillot, D., Oro, D., Raicevich, S., Rius–Barile, J., Saiz–Salinas, J.I., San Vicente, C., Somot, S., Templado, J., Turon, X., Vafidis, D., Villanueva, R., Voultsiadou, E. (2010) The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PloS ONE 5: 1-36.

Costa, G., Giussani, V., Kletou, D., Kleitou, P., Pansini, M., Setti, A., Pronzato, R., Bertolino, M. (2018) A first preliminary study of the shallow water sponge fauna from Cyprus Island (Eastern Mediterranean). Zootaxa 4450(5): 594.

Cresswell, E. (1922) Sponges: Their Nature, History, Modes of Fishing, Varieties, Cultivation, Etc. Sir I. Pitman and Sons, London, UK.

Çinar, M.E. (2013) Alien polychaete species worldwide: Current status and their impacts. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93: 1257-1278.

Çinar, M.E., Bilecenoglu, M., Öztürk, B., Katagan, T., Aysel, V. (2005) Alien species on the coasts of Turkey. Mediterranean Marine Science 6(2): 119-146.

Çinar, M.E., Bilecenoglu, M., Öztürk, B., Katağan, T., Yokeş, M.B., Aysel, V., Dağlı, E., Açık, S., Özcan, T., Erdoğan, H. (2011) An updated review of alien species on the coasts of Turkey. Mediterranean Marine Science 12: 257-315.

Çinar, M.E., Bilecenoğlu, M., Yokeş, M.B., Öztürk, B., Taşkin, E., Bakir, K., Doğan, A., Açik, Ş. (2021) Current status (as of end of 2020) of marine alien species in Turkey. PLoS ONE 16(5): e0251086.

Çinar, M.E., Ergen, Z. (1998) Polychaetes associated with the sponge Sarcotragus muscarum Schmidt, 1864 from the Turkish Aegean coast. Ophelia 48: 167-183.

Çinar, M.E., Evcen, A., Açik, Ş. (2019) Macrozoobenthic invertebrates in three submarine caves of the Aegean Sea: Preliminary results. In: Marine Caves of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Biodiversity, Threats and Conservation, (ed., Öztürk, B.). Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 53, Istanbul, Türkiye.

Çinar, M.E., Féral, J.P., Arvanitidis, C., David, R., Taşkin, E., Sini, M., Chenuil, A. (2020) Coralligenous assemblages along their geographical distribution: Testing of concepts and implications for management, Aquatic Conservation. Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 30(8): 1578-1594.

Çinar, M.E., Katağan, T., Ergen, Z., Sezgin, M. (2002) Zoobenthos inhabiting Sarcotragus muscarum (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Aegean Sea. Hydrobiologia 482: 107-117.

Demir, V., Okus, E. (2010) Marine sponges from Datça-Bozburun Peninsula – a Specially Protected Area in the South Eastern Aegean Sea (Turkey). Rapports Commission Internationale de la Mer Méditerranée 39: 490.

De Voogd, N.J., Alvarez, B., Boury-Esnault, N., Carballo, J.L., Cárdenas, P., Díaz, M.-C., Dohrmann, M., Downey, R.; Goodwin, C., Hajdu, E., Hooper, J.N.A., Kelly, M., Klautau, M., Lim, S.C., Manconi, R.; Morrow, C., Pinheiro, U., Pisera, A.B.; Ríos, P., Rützler, K., Schönberg, C., Vacelet, J., van Soest, R.W.M., Xavier, J. (2023) World Porifera Database: https://www. on 2023-04-12. doi: 10.14284/359 (accessed 30 May 2023).

Digenis, M., Arvanitidis, C., Dailianis, T., Gerovasileiou, V. (2022) Comparative study of marine cave communities in a protected area of the South-Eastern Aegean Sea, Greece. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 10(5): 660.

Ergen, Z., Cinar, M.E. (1994) Qualitative and quantitative investigation of Cystoseria facies distributed in the Aegean Sea. In: XII. National Biology Congress, Edirne, Türkiye, 138-149. (in Turkish)

Ergen, Z., Kocataş, A., Katağan, T., Çinar, M.E. (1994) Benthic fauna of Gencelli Harbor (Aliağa – İzmir). EU Journal of Science Faculty 16: 1047-1059. (in Turkish)

Ergüven, H., Ulutürk, T., Öztürk, B. (1988) Porifera (sponge) fauna and production possibilities of Gökçeada. Istanbul University Journal of Fisheries 2: 173-189. (in Turkish)

Eryalçin, E.N.T., Topaloglu, B., Eryalçin, M. K., Öztürk, B.A. (2013) Preliminary study of density and area cover of a shallow water sponge Sarcotragus spinosulus in Doganbey, Central Aegean Sea, Turkey. Rapports Commission Internationale de la Mer Méditerranée 40: 698.

Evcen, A. (2013) Sponges (Porifera) Species Distributed in Ildir Bay (Aegean Sea). Ege University Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Master Thesis. İzmir, Türkiye. (in Turkish)

Evcen, A., Çınar, M.E. (2012) Sponge (Porifera) species from the Mediterranean coast of Turkey (Levantene Sea, eastern Mediterranean), with a checklist of sponges from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 36: 460-474.

Evcen, A., Çinar, M.E. (2015) Bioeroding sponge species (Porifera) in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 21(3): 285-306.

Evcen, A., Çinar, M.E. (2020) Sponge species from inner and middle parts of İzmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Eastern Mediterranean). Ege Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37(2): 149-155.

Evcen, A., Gözcelioğlu, B., Çinar, M.E. (2020) Niphates toxifera (Porifera, Demospongiae), a possible Lessepsian invader now colonizing the coast of Turkey). Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 26(3): 286-293.

Gabriele, C., Valentina, G., Demetris, K., Periklis, K., Maurizio, P., Alexia, S., Roberto, P., Marco, B. (2018) A first preliminary study of the shallow water sponge fauna from Cyprus Island (Eastern Mediterranean). Zootaxa 4450(5): 594-596.

Geldiay, R., Kocataş, A. (1972) A preliminary study on the benthos of Izmir Bay. Ege University Science Monographs Series 12: 3-33. (in Turkish)

Gerovasileiou, V., Akel, E., Akyol, O., Alongi, G., Azevedo, F., Babali, N., Bakiu, R., Bariche, M., Bennoui, A., Castriota, L., Chintiroglou, C., Crocetta, F., Deidun, Α., Galinou-Mitsoudi, S., Giovos, Ι., Gökoğlu, M., Golemaj, Α., Hadjioannou, L., Hartingerova, J., Insacco, G., Katsanevakis, S., Kleitou, P., Korun, J., Lipej, L., Michailidis, N., Mouzai Tifoura, A., Ovalis, P., Petović, S., Piraino, S., Rizkalla, S., Rousou, M., Savva, I., Şen, H., Spinelli, A., Vougioukalou, K., Xharahi, E., Zava, B., Zenetos, A. (2017) New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July, 2017). Mediterranean Marine Science 18(2): 355.

Gerovasileiou, V., Chintiroglou, C.C., Vafidis, D., Koutsoubas, D., Sini, M., Dailianis, T., Issaris, Y., Akritopoulou, E., Dimarchopoulou, D., Voultsiadou, E. (2015) Census of biodiversity in marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 16 (1): 245-265.

Gerovasileiou, V., Dailianis, T., Sini, M., del Mar Otero, M., Numa, C., Katsanevakis, S., Voultsiadou, E. (2018) Assessing the regional conservation status of sponges (Porifera): the case of the Aegean ecoregion. Mediterranean Marine Science 19(3): 526-537.

Gerovasileiou, V., Voultsiadou, E. (2012) Marine caves of the Mediterranean Sea: A sponge biodiversity reservoir within a biodiversity hotspot. PLoS ONE 7(7): e39873.

Gerovasileiou, V., Voultsiadou, E. (2016) Sponge diversity gradients in marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 96(2): 407-416.

Goren, L., Idan, T., Shefer, S., Ilan, M. (2021) Macrofauna inhabiting massive demosponges from shallow and mesophotic habitats along the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Frontiers in Marine Science 7: 612779.

Gözcelioğlu, B., Ceylan, T. (2011) Residents of Our Seas. Gökçe Ofset, Ankara, Türkiye. (in Turkish)

Gözcelioğlu, B., Evcen, A., Çinar, M.E. (2022) Alien Sponge Species Niphates toxifera Expands Spread. Scientific Conference on the Effects of Marine Invasive Alien Species (21-23 November 2022, Antalya). (in Turkish)

Gözcelioğlu, B., Van Soest, R., Alvarez, B., Konuklugil, B. (2015) New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Turkish coast. Turkish Journal of Zoology 39(4): 555-559.

Gözcelioğlu, B., Van Soest R.W.M., Proksh, P., Konuklugil, B. (2011) Contribution to the knowledge of the Demospongiae (Porifera) fauna of Turkey. Zoolgy in the Middle East 54: 149-152.

Griessinger, J.M. (1971) Etude des Réniérides de Méditerranée (Démosponges Haplosclérides). Bulletin du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Zoologie) 3(3): 97-182.

Gruvel, A. (1931) Les Etats de Syrie. Richesses marines et fluviales. Exploitation actuelle – Avenir. Société d’Éditions Géographiques, Maritimes et Coloniales, Paris.

Guardiola, M., Frotscher, J., Uriz, M.J. (2011) Genetic structure and differentiation at a short-time scale of the introduced calcarean sponge Paraleucilla magna to the western Mediterranean. Hydrobiologia 687: 71-84.

Hermans, J., Dubois, P., Andre, L., Vacelet, J., Willenz, P. (2010) Growth rate and chemical features of the massive calcium carbonate skeleton of Petrobiona massiliana (Baeriida: Calcaronea: Calcispongiae). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 90(4): 749‑754.

Idan, T., Shefer, S., Feldstein, T., Ilan, M. (2021) New discoveries in Eastern Mediterranean mesophotic sponge grounds: updated checklist and description of three novel sponge species. Mediterranean Marine Science 22(2): 270-284.

Idan, T., Shefer, S., Feldstein, T., Yahel, R., Huchon, D., Ilan, M. (2018) Shedding light on an East-Mediterranean mesophotic sponge ground community and the regional sponge fauna. Mediterranean Marine Science 19(1): 84-106.

Ilan, M., Ben-Eliahu, M.N., Galil, B.S. (1994) Three deep water sponges from the Eastern Mediterranean and their associated fauna. Ophelia 39: 45-54.

Ilan, M., Gugel, J., Galil, B., Janussen, D. (2003) Small bathyal sponge species from east Mediterranean revealed by a non-regular soft bottom sampling technique. Ophelia 57(3): 145-160.

Ilan, M., Gugel, J., Van Soest, R.W.M. (2004) Taxonomy, reproduction and ecology of new and known Red Sea sponges. Sarsia 89: 388-410.

Jesionowski, T., Norman, M., Żółtowska-Aksamitowska, S., Petrenko, I., Joseph, Y., Ehrlich, H. (2018) Marine Spongin: Naturally prefabricated 3D scaffold-based biomaterial. Marine Drugs 16(3): 88.

Kassis, G. (1967) Marine Sponges of Lebanon. Master Thessis, American University of Beirut (Lebanon).

Katsanevakis, S., Poursanidis, D., Hoffman, R., Rizgalla, J., Rothman, S.B.S., Levitt-Barmats, Y.A., Zenetos, A. (2020) Unpublished Mediterranean records of marine alien and cryptogenic species. BioInvasions Records 9(2): 165-182.

Kefalas, E., Castritsi-Catharios, J. (2007) Taxonomy of some sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae) collected from the Aegean Sea and description of a new species. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87(6): 1527-1538.

Kefalas, E., Castritsi-Catharios, J. (2012) A new species of Halichondriidae, Topsentia vaceleti n. sp. (Halichondrida, Demospongiae, Porifera), collected from coralligenous bottoms of the Aegean Sea. Zootaxa 3314(1): 58-68.

Kefalas, E., Castritsi-Catharios, I., Miliou, H. (2003) The impacts of scallop dredging on sponge assemblages in the Gulf of Kalloni (Aegean Sea, northeastern Mediterranean). ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: 402-410.

Kier, G., Kreft, H., Lee, T. M., Jetz, W., Ibisch, P. L., Nowicki, C., Mutke, J., Barthlott, W. (2009) A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (23): 9322-9327.

Kocataş, A. (1978) Qualitative and quantitative studies on the benthic forms of the Izmir Bay rocky coast. Ege University Science Monographs Series 12: 1-93. (in Turkish)

Koçak, F., Ergen, Z., Çinar, M.E. (1999) Fouling organisms and their developments in a polluted and an unpolluted marina in the Aegean Sea (Turkey). Ophelia 50: 1-20.

Koukouras, A. (2010) Check-list of marine species from Greece. Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Assembled in the framework of the EU FP7 PESI project.

Lage, A., Araujo, H.P.M., Gerovasileiou, V., Muricy, G. (2018) A new cave-dwelling species of Plakina (Porifera: Homoscleromorpha) from Crete, Greece (South Aegean Sea). Zootaxa 4466(1): 39-48.

Lage, A., Gerovasileiou, V., Voultsiadou, E., Muricy, G. (2019) Taxonomy of Plakina (Porifera: Homoscleromorpha) from Aegean submarine caves, with descriptions of three new species and new characters for the genus. Marine Biodiversity 49: 727-747.

Lévi, C. (1957) Spongiaires des côtes d’Israel. Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel 6B(3-4): 201-212.

Lipkin, Y., Safriel, U. (1971) Intertidal zonation on rocky shores at Mikhmoret (Mediterranean, Israel). The Journal of Ecology 59(1): 1-30.

Longo, C., Cardone, F., Pierri, C., Mercurio, M., Mucciolo, S., Marzano, C.N., Corriero, G. (2018) Sponges associated with coralligenous formations along the Apulian coasts. Marine Biodiversity 48(4): 2151-2163.

Longo, C., Mastrototaro, F., Corriero, G. (2007) Occurrence of Paraleucilla magna (Porifera: Calcarea) in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87(6): 1749-1755.

Manconi, R., Cadeddu, B., Ledda, F., Pronzato, R. (2013) An overview of the Mediterranean cave-dwelling horny sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae). ZooKeys 281: 1-68.

Milanese, M., Sara, A., Manconi, R., Ben Abballa, A., Pronzato, R. (2008) Commercial sponge fishing in Libya: historicalrecords, present status and perspectives. Fisheries Research 89: 90-96.

Muricy, G., Boury-Esnault, N., Bézac, C., Vacelet, J. (1998) Taxonomic revision of the Mediterranean Plakina Schulze (Porifera, Demospongiae, Homoscleromorpha). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 124: 169-203.

Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A., Kent, J. (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.

Notarbartolo di Sciara, G., Agardy, T. (2009) Identification of potential SPAMIs in Mediterranean Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. Contract N° 01/2008_RAC/SPA, High Seas.

Okus, E., Yüksek, A., Yilmaz, I.N., Yilmaz, A.A., Karhan, S.Ü., Öz, M.İ., Murat, E. (2007) Marine biodiversity of Datça-Bozburun Specially Protected Area (southeastern Aegean Sea, Turkey). Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 13(1): 39-49.

Özalp, H.B. (2019) Artificial Habitats Under the Sea: A Look at Bozcaada Reefs and Biodiversity (1st edition), Çanakkale, Turkey. Özen Matbaa Yayıncılık, Çanakkale, Turkey.

Öztürk, B., Aktan, Y., Topaloğlu, B., Keskin, Ç., Karakulak S., Öztürk, A.A., Dede and A. Türkozan, O. (2004) Marine life of Turkey in the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas. Turkish Marine Research Foundation Publication, Marine Education Series, İstanbul, Türkiye.

Pansini, M. (1996) Petrosia pulitzeri n.sp. (Porifera, Demospongiae) from Mediterranean caves. Italian Journal of Zoology 63: 169-172.

Pansini, M., Longo, C. (2003) A review of the Mediterranean Sea sponge biogeography with, in appendix, a list of the demosponges hitherto recorded from this sea. Biogeographia 24: 59-90.

Pansini, M., Morri, C., Bianchi, C.N. (2000) The sponge community of a subtidal area with hydrothermal vents: Milos Island, Aegean Sea. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 51: 627-635.

Perez, T., Thomas, O. (2011) Ecologie Chimique Marine: Indicateurs de Biodiversité et Valorisation (ECIMAR): Ecimar. Available at: (accessed on 9 August 2023).

Pérez, T., Vacelet, J., Bitar, G., Zibrowius, H. (2004) Two new lithistids (Porifera: Demospongiae) from a shallow eastern Mediterranean cave (Lebanon). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84(1): 15-24.

Pisera, A., Gerovasileiou, V. (2021) Lithistid Demosponges of deep-water origin in marine caves of the north-eastern Mediterranean Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science 8(630900): 1-19.

Pisera, A., Vacelet, J. (2011) Lithistid sponges from submarine caves in the Mediterranean: taxonomy and affinities. Scientia Marina 75(1): 17-40.

Por, F.D., Dimentman, C. (2006) Mare Nostrum: Neogene and Anthropic Natural History of the Mediterranean Basin, with Emphasis on the Levant. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia-Moscow.

Pronzato, R. (2003) Mediterranean sponge fauna: a biological, historical and cultural heritage, Marine Biogeography of the Mediterranean Sea: Patterns and dynamics of biodiversity. Biogeographia 24(1): 91-99.

Pronzato, R., Manconi, R. (2008) Mediterranean commercial sponges: over 5000 years of natural history and cultural heritage. Marine Ecology 29(2): 146-166.

Pulitzer-Finali, G. (1983) A collection of Mediterranean Demospongiae (Porifera) with, in appendix, a list of the Demospongiae hitherto recorded from the Mediterranean Sea. Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale Giacomo Doria 84: 445-621.

Pulitzer-Finali, G., Pronzato, R. (1981 [1980]) The Keratosa in a collection of Mediterranean sponges mainly from the Italian coasts. Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale Giacomo Doria 83: 127-158.

RAC/SPA – UNEP/MAP (2014) Ecological characterization of sites of interest for conservation in Lebanon: Enfeh Peninsula, Ras Chekaa cliffs, Raoucheh, Saida, Tyre and Nakoura, (eds., Ramos-Esplá, A.A., Bitar, G., Khalaf, G., El Shaer, H., Forcada, A., Limam, A., Ocaña, O., Sghaier, Y.R., Valle, C.), RAC/SPA – MedMPAnet Project, Tunis: 146 p + annexes.

Rallis, I., Chatzigeorgiou, G., Florido, M., Sedano, F., Procopiou, A., Chertz-Bynichaki, M., Vernadou, E., Plaiti, W., Koulouri, P., Dounas, C., Gerovasileiou, V., Dailianis, T. (2022) Early succession patterns of benthic assemblages on artificial reefs in the oligotrophic eastern mediterranean basin. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 10(5): 620.

Ramadan, M.M., Kheirallah, A.M., Badawi, H.K., El-Beshbeeshy, M.M. (1989) A new record of sponges from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Bulletin national of Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries 15: 63-71.

Rützler, K., Bromley, R.G. (1981) Cliona rhodensis, new species (Porifera: Hadromerida) from the Mediterranean. Proceedings of the Biological Socety of Washsington 94 (4): 1219-1225.

Sarıtaş, M. (1972) A preliminary study on the silicious sponge (Porifera) fauna of the engaged port. Ege University Science Faculty Scientific Report Series, 143: 3-22. (in Turkish)

Saritas, M. (1973). Report on the sponges (Porifera) occurring on Posidonia oceanica (L.) at the coast of Altinoluk, Edremit Bay (Aegean Sea). Ege University Science Faculty Scientific Report Series 168: 3-21. (in Turkish)

Saritas, M.U. (1974) Systematic Studies on Silica Sponges (Porifera) Living in Izmir Bay. PhD Thesis, Diyarbakir University, Diyarbakir, Türkiye. (in Turkish)

Schmidt, O. (1862) Die Spongien des adriatischen Meeres. (Wilhelm Engelmann: Leipzig): i-viii, 1-88, pls 1-7.

Schulze, F.E. (1879) Untersuchungen über den Bau und die Entwicklung der Spongien. Siebente Mittheilung. Die Familie der Spongidae. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie 32: 593-660

Sghaier, Y.R., Zakhama-Sraieb, R. Hmida, A.B., Charfi, F. (2019) An inventory of non-indigenous species (NIS) inside and outside three tourist marinas from the southern Mediterranean coast. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 25(1): 29-48.

Spalding, M.D., Fox, H.E., Allen, G.R., Davidson, N., Ferdaña, Z. A., Finlayson, M., Halpern, B.S., Jorge, M.A., Lombana, A., Lourie, S.A., Martin, K.D., McManus, E., Molnar, J., Recchia, C.A., Robertson, J. (2007) Marine ecoregions of the world: A bioregionalization of coastal and shelf areas. Bioscience 57: 573- 583.

SPA/RAC–UN Environment/MAP (2017) Ecological characterization of potential new Marine Protected Areas in Lebanon: Batroun, Medfoun and Byblos, (eds., Ramos-Esplá, A.A., Bitar, G., Forcada, A., Valle, C., Ocaña, O., Sghaier, Y.R., Samaha, Z., Kheriji, A., Limam A.), SPA/RAC MedMPA Network Project, Tunis.

SPA/RAC–UN Environment/MAP (2018) National Monitoring Programme for Marine Biodiversity in Lebanon, (eds., Bitar, G., Ramadan Jaradi, G., Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Lteif, M.), SPA/RAC EcAp Med II project, Tunis.

Szymanski, M. (1904) Zur Anatomie und Systematik der Hornschwämme des Mittelmeeres. Zoologischen Anzeiger 27: 445-449.

Topaloğlu, B. (2001) A preliminary study on the sponge fauna of the northern coast of Gökceada. In: Proceedings of the National Aegean Islands 2001 Meeting, (eds., Öztürk, B., Aysel, V.), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, İstanbul, Türkiye, pp: 97-102. (in Turkish)

Topaloğlu, B., Evcen, A. (2014) Updated checklist of sponges (Porifera) along the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 38: 665-667.

Topaloğlu, B., Evcen, A., Çinar, M. (2016) Sponge fauna in the Sea of Marmara. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 16(1): 51-12.

Tsurnamal, M. (1967) Chelonaplysilla erecta n. sp. (Demospongiae, Keratosa) from Mediterranean coast of Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 16: 96-100.

Tsurnamal, M. (1968) Studies on the Porifera of the Mediterranean littoral of Israel. Ph.D. Thesis, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem. (in Hebrew)

Tsurnamal, M. (1969) Sponges of Red Sea origin on the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Israel Journal of Zoology 18: 149-155.

Tsurnamal, M. (1975) The calcareous sponges of shallow habitats along the Mediterranean Coast of Israel. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution 24(3-4): 137-153.

Ulman, A., Ferrario, J., Occhpinti-Ambrogi, A., Arvanitidis, C., Bandi, A., Bertolino, M., Bogi, C., Chatzigeorgiou, G., Çiçek, B.A., Deidun, A., Ramos-Esplá, A., Koçak, C., Lorenti, M., Martinez-Laiz, G., Merlo, G., Princisgh, E., Scribano, G., Marchini, A. (2017) A massive update of non-indigenous species records in Mediterranean marinas. Peer Journal 5: e3954.

Ünsal, S. (1981) Ecological and Benthic Studies on the Rocky Coasts of Akkuyu Gulf. Associate Professor Thesis, Ege University, Izmir. (in Turkish)

Vacelet, J. (1958) Dendrilla acantha nov. sp. nouvelle éponge cornée méditerranéenne. Remarques sur les genres Dendrilla Lendenfeld et Megalopastas Dendy. Recueil des Travaux de la Station marine d’Endoume 14 (23): 143-147.

Vacelet, J. (1959) Répartition générale des éponges et systématique des éponges cornées de la région de Marseille et de quelques stations méditerranéennes. Recueil des Travaux de la Station marine d’Endoume 16(26): 39-101.

Vacelet, J. (1961) Quelques Eponges remarquables de Méditerranée. Revue des Travaux de l’Institut des Pêches maritimes 25(3): 351-354.

Vacelet, J. (1969) Eponges de la Roche du Large et de l’étage bathyal de Méditerranée (Récoltes de la soucoupe plongeante Cousteau et dragages). Mémoires du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (A, Zoologie) 59(2): 145-219, pls I-IV.

Vacelet, J. (1980) Les affinités du peuplement de Spongiaires de la Méditerranée. Journées Etudes Systématique et Biogéographie Méditerranée – Cagliari 29-30.

Vacelet, J. (1996) Nouvelles signalisations d’éponges profondes en Méditerranée. Mésogée 55: 107-114.

Vacelet, J., Bitar, G., Carteron, S., Zibrowius, H., Pérez, T. (2007) Five new sponge species (Porifera: Demospongiae) of subtropical or tropical affinities from the coast of Lebanon (eastern Mediterranean). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 87(6): 1539-1552.

Vacelet, J., Bitar, G., Dailianis, T., Zibrowius, H., Pérez, T. (2008) A large encrusting clionaid sponge in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Marine Ecology 29: 237-246.

Vacelet, J., Pérez, T. (2008) Phorbas topsenti and Phorbas tailliezi (Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida), new names for the Mediterranean ‘Phorbas paupertas’ and ‘Phorbas coriaceus‘. Zootaxa 1873: 26-38.

Vamvakas, C.N.E. (1970) Peuplements benthiques des substrats meubles du Sud de la Mer Egée. Tethys 2(1): 89-130.

Van Soest, R.W.M., Boury-Esnault, N., Vacelet, J., Dohrmann, M., Erpenbeck, D., De Voogd, N.J., Santodomingo, N., Vanhoorne, B., Kelly, M., Hooper, J.N.A. (2012) Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera). PLoS ONE 7(4): 1-23.

Voultsiadou, E. (2005) Sponge diversity in the Aegean Sea: Check list and new information. Italian Zoology 72 (1): 53-64.

Voultsiadou, E., Dailianis, T., Antoniadou, C., Vafidis, D., Dounas, C., Chintiroglou, C.C. (2011) Aegean bath sponges: historical data and current status. Reviews in Fisheries Science 19(1) 34-51.

Voultsiadou, E., Gerovasileiou, V., Bailly, N. (2016) Porifera of Greece: an updated checklist. Biodiversity Data Journal 4: e7984.

Voultsiadou-Koukoura, E., Koukouras, A. (1993) Contribution to the knowledge of Keratose sponges (Dictyoceratida, Dendroceratida, Verongida: Demospongiae, Porifera) of the Aegean Sea. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 69: 57-72.

Voultsiadou, E., Kyrodimou, M., Antoniadou, C., Vafidis, D. (2010) Sponge epibionts on ecosystem-engineering ascidians: The case of Microcosmus sabatieri. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 86(4): 598-606.

Voultsiadou, E., Vafidis, D. (2004) Rare sponge (Porifera: Demospongiae) species from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 84 (3): 593-598.

Voultsiadou-Koukoura, E., Van Soest, R.W.M. (1993) Suberitidae (Demospongiae, Hadromerida) from the North Aegean Sea. Beaufortia 43 (11): 176-186.

Voultsiadou-Koukoura, E., Van Soest, R.W.M., Koukouras, A. (1991) Coscinoderma sporadense sp.n. from the Aegean Sea with comments on Coscinoderma confragosum Porifera, Dictyoceratida). Zoologica Scripta 20 (3): 195-199.

Yazıcı, M. (1978) Porifera species found around Gökçeada and Bozcaada. Biyoloji Dergisi 28: 109-121. (in Turkish)

Yokeş, M. B., Demir, V. (2013) Determination Work on Marine Biodiversity at Ayvalık Adaları Nature Park. PIMS 3697: Strengthening the System of the Marine and Coastal Protected Areas of Turkey. Technical Report Series 20: 1- 104.

Zammit, P.P., Longo, C., Schembri, P.J. (2009) Occurrence of Paraleucilla magna Klautau et al., 2004 (porífera: Calcarea) in Malta. Mediterranean Marine Science 10(2): 135-138.

Zenetos, A., Çinar, M.E., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M.A., Harmelin, J.G., Furnari, G., Andaloro, F., Bellou, N., Streftaris, N., Zibrowius, H. (2005) Annotated list of marine alien species in the Mediterranean with records of the worst invasive species. Mediterranean Marine Science 6(2): 63-118.

Zenetos, A., Corsini-Foka, M., Crocetta, F., Gerovasileiou, V., Karachle, P.K., Simboura, N., Tsiamis, K., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M.A. (2018) Deep cleaning of alien and cryptogenic species records in the Greek Seas (2018 update). Management of Biological Invasions 9(3): 209-226.

Zenetos, Α., Gofas, S., Morri, C., Rosso, A., Violanti, D., Garcia Raso, J., Cinar, M., Almogi-Labin, A., Ates, A., Azzurro, E., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C., Bilecenoglu, M., Gambi, M., Giangrande, A., Gravili, C., Hyams-Kaphzan, O., Karachle, P.K., Katsanevakis, S., Lipej, L., Mastrototaro, F., Mineur, F., Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M., Ramos Espla, A., Salas, C., San Martin, G., Sfriso, A., Streftaris, N., Verlaque, M. (2012) Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways. Mediterranean Marine Science 13(2): 328-352.



Record of a bull ray Aetomylaeus bovinus (Myliobatidae) in a sea-cage tuna farm in the Aegean coast of Türkiye (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

Record of a bull ray Aetomylaeus bovinus (Myliobatidae) in a sea-cage tuna farm in the Aegean coast of Türkiye (Eastern Mediterranean Sea) 

Evrim Kurtay, Okan Akyol, Aytaç Özgül, Christian Capapé

ORCID IDs: E.K. 0000-0002-7234-8407; O.A. 0000-0001-7738-2156; A.Ö. 0000-0001-7706-9012; C.C. 0000-0002-6630-2728

Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University 35440 Urla, İzmir, TÜRKİYE
Laboratoire d’Ichtyologie, Université de Montpellier, 34095 Montpellier, FRANCE


A specimen of bull ray Aetomylaeus bovinus was captured dead by a diver around a tuna sea cage farm. It was female, measured 2310 mm in total length (TL) and 1460 mm in disc width (DW) with body weight estimated as about 20 kg. This case was reported from a tuna farm for the first time. The bull ray entered the sea cage about three months ago, but no attack occurred to the tuna in the cage. It was grazing on fouling organisms that attached to the nets. However, the cage nets were replaced with clean ones four days ago before the capture, and the bull ray did not find enough fouling organisms or uneaten fish feed and was starved to death.

Keywords: Aetomylaeus bovinus, sea-cage farm, predators, biodiversity, nutrition

pdf-dl icon


Akyol, O., Aydın, I., El-Kamel-Moutalibi, O., Capapé, C. (2017) Bull ray, Aetomylaeus bovinus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817) (Myliobatidae) in the Mediterranean Sea and captures of juveniles from Izmir Bay (Aegean Sea, Turkey). Journal of Applied Ichthyology 33: 1200-1203.

Akyol, O., Ertosluk, O. (2010) Fishing near sea-cage farms along the coast of the Turkish Aegean Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 26(1): 11-15.

Akyol, O., Özgül, A., Şen, H., Düzbastilar, F.O., Ceyhan, T. (2019) Determining potential conflicts between small-scale fisheries and sea-cage fish farms in the Aegean Sea. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 46(4): 365-372.

Akyol, O., Şen, H. (2022) Recent observations on sandbar shark Carcharhinus plumbeus (Carcharhinidae) around sea cages of fish farms in Iskenderun Bay (Türkiye, eastern Mediterranean Sea). Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 28(3): 361-366.

Akyol, O., Şen, H., Capapé, C. (2022) Occurrence of a shoal of bull ray Aetomylaeus bovinus (Myliobatidae) around a sea-sage farm in Iskenderun Bay (Türkiye, NE Mediterranean Sea). COMU Journal of Marine Sciences and Fisheries 5(2):199-202.

Anon. (2020) Notification on the regulation of commercial fishing no. 5/1 (Number: 2020/20). Available at: (in Turkish) (accessed 03 May 2023).

Anon. (2022) Aquaculture facilities. Available at: chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/
BSGM/Belgeler/Icerikler/Su%20%C3%9Cr%C3%BCnleri%20Yeti%C5%9Ftiricili%C4%9Fi/Su-Urunleri-Tesisleri-2019.pdf (in Turkish) (accessed 10 May 2023).

Bacher, K., Gordoa, A. (2016) Does marine fish farming affect local small-scalefishery catches? A case study in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Aquaculture Research 47: 2444-2454.

Capapé, C., Quignard, J.P. (1975) Contribution à la systématique et à la biologie de Pteromylæus bovinus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1817), (Pisces, Myliobatidæ) des côtes tunisiennes. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire naturelle de Paris, 3ème série, n° 338, Zoologie 240: 1329-1347.

Capapé, C., Tomasini, J.A., Quignard, J.-P. (2000) Les Elasmobranches Pleurotrêmes de la côte du Languedoc (France méridionale, Méditerranée septentrionale). Observations biologiques et démographiques. Vie et Milieu 50(2): 123-133.

Ceyhan, T., Akyol, O., Demir-Saglam, Y., Sen, H., Özgül, A., Düzbastilar, F.O. (2020) The gathering of predators around the sea-cage fish farms in the Aegean Sea. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 61(4): 361-368.

Jabado, R.W., Chartrain, E., Cliff, G., Derrick, D., Dia, M., Diop, M., Doherty, P., Dossa, J., Leurs, G.H.L., Metcalfe, K., Porriños, G., Seidu, I., Soares, A., Tamo, A., VanderWright, W.J. & Williams, A.B. (2021) Aetomylaeus bovinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T60127A124441812. doi: T60127A124441812.en.

Mc Eachran, J.D., Capapé, C. (1984) Myliobatidae. In: Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, (eds., Whitehead, P.J.P., Bauchot, M.L., Hureau, J.-C., Nielsen, J., Tortonese, E.), Presses de l’UNESCO, Paris, Vol.1, pp. 205-207.

Özgül, A., Akyol, O., Sen, H., Ceyhan, T., Düzbastilar, F.O. (2023) Wild fish aggregations near sea-cages rearing adult and juvenile fish in the Aegean Sea. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology 23: 15-29.

Assessing total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in sea water and sediment samples of Karaburun-Ildır Bay Special Environmental Protected Area on the Aegean coast of Türkiye  

Assessing total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in sea water and sediment samples of Karaburun-Ildır Bay Special Environmental Protected Area on the Aegean coast of Türkiye

 Pelin S. Çiftçi Türetken 

ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4377-1628 

Faculty of Aquatic Sciences, Istanbul University, Onaltı Mart Şehitleri Cad. No: 2, 34134 Vezneciler Fatih/Istanbul, TÜRKİYE


The Karaburun-Ildır Bay Special Environmental Protected Area (SEPA) is a unique and ecologically significant region located along the Aegean coast of Türkiye. The aim of this study was to determine the total petroleum hydrocarbon levels in seawater and sediment samples collected from stations in Karaburun-Ildır Bay. Sampling was carried out in May and September 2022. The samples were analyzed using a spectrofluorometer (UVF, Shimadzu RF-5301). While the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels were determined as 0.10-2.70 µg/l in seawater samples, it was determined as 1.77-42.62 µg/g in sediment samples. TPH values in seawater samples were above the international limit values (UN Environment Programme). While significant difference was detected between stations in the TPH values in the sediment, no significant difference was detected between the sampling. This study is important as it is the first to determine the TPH levels in Karaburun-Ildır Bay. The results showed that it is important to continue monitoring studies in protected areas.

Keywords: Total petroleum hydrocarbons, sediments, seawater, Karaburun-Ildır Bay

pdf-dl icon


Aguilera, F., Méndez, J., Pásaro, E., Laffon, B. (2010) Review on the effects of exposure to spilled oils on human health. Journal of Applied Toxicology 30(4): 291-301.

Balachandar, K., Viswanathan, C., Robin, R.S., Abhilash, K.R., Sankar, R., Deepak Samuel, V., Purvaja, R., Ramesh, R. (2023) Benthic foraminifera as an environmental proxy for pollutants along the coast of Chennai, India. Chemosphere 310: 136824.

Balci, A. (1993) Dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons in the Eastern Aegean Sea. Marine Pollution Bulletin 26(4): 222-223.

Balcioğlu, E.B., Çiftçi, P.S., Çardak, M. (2010) Oil Pollution in the Surface Water of the Aegean Sea in 2007 and 2008. Rapport de Commission internationale de la Mer Méditerranaée 39: 216.

Balthis, W.L., Hyland, J.L., Cooksey, C., Montagna, P.A., Baguley, J.G., Ricker, R.W., Lewis, C. (2017) Sediment quality benchmarks for assessing oil-related impacts to the deep-sea benthos. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 13: 840-851.

Bao, C., Huang, B., Shao, J., Cai, Q., Mu, Q., Murk, A.J. (2021) Spatial and temporal distribution of toxic compounds in sediments and potential ecological effects on macrobenthic faunal species in Hangzhou Bay from 2003 to 2015. Marine Pollution Bulletin 172: 112816.

Barathkumar, S., Savurirajan, M., Raja, P., Marigoudar, S.R., Sharma, K.V., Ramana Murthy, M.V. (2022) Spatial distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in the seawater and sediment of Southeast coast of India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 195: 1203.

Dede, A., Tonay, M.A., Öztürk, B. (2015) Mediterranean Monk Seal (Monachus monachus Hermann, 1779) in the Aegean Sea. In: The Aegean Sea Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance, (eds., Katağan, T., Tokaç, A., Beşiktepe, Ş., Öztürk, B.), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 41, Istanbul, Türkiye, pp. 612-636.

Dettman, H.D., Wade, T.L., French-McCay, D.P., Bejarano, A.C., Hollebone, B.P., Faksness, L.G., Mirnaghi, F.S., Yang, Z., Loughery, J., Pretorius, T., Jourdan, B. (2023) Recommendations for the advancement of oil-in-water media and source oil characterization in aquatic toxicity test studies. Aquatic Toxicology 261: 106582.

Ehrhardt, M., Petrick, G. (1989) Relative concentrations of dissolved /dispersed fosil fuel residues in Mediterranean surface waters as measured by UV fluorescence. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20: 560-565.

EPA (1999) Toxicological Profile for Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). Available at: toxprofiles/tp123.pdf (accessed 20 Jun 2023).

EPA (2014) Method 3620C: Florisil Cleanup, part of Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods. Available at: (accessed 1 Aug 2023).

FAO (1982) The Review of the Health of the Oceans. FAO/IMCO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP). Rep Stud Gesamp 15: 108.

Foshtomi, M.Y., Oryan, S., Taheri, M., Bastami, K.D., Zahed, M.A. (2019) Composition and abundance of microplastics in surface sediments and their interaction with sedimentary heavy metals, PAHs and TPH (total petroleum hydrocarbons). Marine Pollution Bulletin 149: 110655.

Gong, Y., Zhao, X., Cai, Z., O’Reilly, S.E., Hao, X., Zhao, D. (2014) A review of oil, dispersed oil and sediment interactions in the aquatic environment: Influence on the fate, transport and remediation of oil spills. Marine Pollution Bulletin 79(1-2): 16-33.

Han, H., Huang, S., Liu, S., Sha, J., Lv, X. (2021) An assessment of marine ecosystem damage from the Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9(7): 732.

Horel, A., Bernard, R.J., Mortazavi, B. (2014) Impact of crude oil exposure on nitrogen cycling in a previously impacted Juncus roemerianus salt marsh in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21: 6982-6993.

Indiketi, N., Grenon, M.C., Groleau, P.E., Veilleux, E., Triffault-Bouchet, G., Couture, P. (2022) The effects of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons on benthic organisms: Chironomids and amphipods. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 237: 113554.

Jin, F., Wang, Y., Yu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, M., Li, Z., Yao, Z., Cong, Y., Wang, J. (2023) Acute and chronic effects of crude oil water-accommodated fractions on the early life stages of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma, McClelland, 1839). Toxics 11(3): 236.

Kang, T., Min, W., Rho, H., Park, H., Kim, D. (2014) Differential responses of a benthic meiofaunal community to an artificial oil spill in the intertidal zone. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 94(2): 219-231.

Kapsalis, K., Kavvalou, M., Damikouka, I., Cavoura, O. (2021) Investigation of petroleum hydrocarbon pollution along the coastline of South Attica, Greece, after the sinking of the Agia Zoni ΙΙ oil tanker. SN Applied Sciences 3, 48. doi:

Kelly, C.A., Law, R.J., Emerson, H.S. (2000) Methods of analysing hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in marine samples. In: Science Series, Aquatic Environment Protection: Analytical Methods. CEFAS, Lowestoft, 12, 18 pp.

Keskin, Ç., Gönülal, O., Oral, M., Topaloğlu, B., Dalyan, C. (2023) Biodiversity and structure of macrofauna in the Karaburun-Ildır Bay Special Environmental Protected Area and adjacent waters (Central Aegean Sea-Türkiye). Journal of the Black Sea / Mediterranean Environment 29(1): 87-120.

Kuppusamy, S., Maddela, N.R., Megharaj, M., Venkateswarlu, K. (2020) Ecological Impacts of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. In: Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Springer, Cham. doi:

Luter, H.M., Whalan, S., Andreakis, N., Wahab, M.A., Botté, E.S., Negri, A.P., Webster, N.S. (2019) The effects of crude oil and dispersant on the larval sponge holobiont. mSystems 4: e00743-19.

Nazir, M., Khan, F., Amyotte, P., Sadiq, R. (2008) Multimedia fate of oil spills in a marine environment—An integrated modelling approach. Process Safety and Environmental Protection 86(2): 141-148.

Öztürk, B., Altuğ, G., Çardak, M., Çiftçi, P.S. (2007) Oil pollution in surface water of the Turkish side of the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean Seas. Journal of the Black Sea / Mediterranean Environment 13: 207-214.

Öztürk, B., Güven, K.C., Nesimigil, F., Cumali, S., Dede, A. (2006) Oil pollution in the surface water of the Aegean Sea. Journal of the Black Sea / Mediterranean Environment 12(3): 201-212.

Pazi, I., Gonul, L.T., Kucuksezgin, F. (2021) Sources and characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic and Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in sediments collected near aquaculture sites from eastern Aegean Coast. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 41(5): 1042-1056.

Perhar, G., Arhonditsis, G.B. (2014) Aquatic ecosystem dynamics following petroleum hydrocarbon perturbations: A review of the current state of knowledge. Journal of Great Lakes Research 40(3): 56-72.

Schlitzer, R. (2014) OceanDataView. Available at: (accessed 8 Jul 2023).

Scott, N.M., Hess, M., Bouskill, N.J., Mason, O.U., Jansson, J.K., Gilbert, J.A. (2014) The microbial nitrogen cycling potential is impacted by polyaromatic hydrocarbon pollution of marine sediments. Frontiers Microbiology 5: 108. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00108.

Tavakoly Sany, S.B., Hashim, R., Rezayi, M., Salleh, A., Safari, O. (2014) A review of strategies to monitor water and sediment quality for a sustainability assessment of marine environment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21: 813-833.

Telli Karakoç, F., Ediger, D. (2020) Oil Pollution of the Surrounding Waters of Turkey. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry Berlin, Springer-Verlag, pp.1-26.

Telli Karakoç, F., Ediger, D., Günay, A. (2016) Oil Pollution in Turkish Waters of the Mediterranean Sea. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Berlin, Springer, pp.1-19.

UNEP (1989) Evaluation of MED POL- Phase II Monitoring Data-Part IVPetroleum and Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Coastal and Reference Areas (UNEP (OCA)/MED WG.5/Inf.6) UNEP, Athens.

Urakawa, H., Rajan, S., Feeney, M.E., Sobecky, P.A., Mortazavi, B. (2019) Ecological response of nitrification to oil spills and its impact on the nitrogen cycle. Environmental Microbiology 21: 18-33.

Volkman, J.K., Holdsworth, D.G., Neill, G.P., Bavor, H.J. (1992) Identification of natural, anthropogenic and petroleum hydrocarbons in aquatic sediments. Science of the Total Environment 112(2-3): 203-219.

Wei, Y., Ding, D., Qu, K., Sun, J., Cui, Z. (2022) Ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollutants and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments of the Bohai Sea, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin 184: 114218.

White, H.K., Marx, C.T., Valentine, D.L., Sharpless, C., Aeppli, C., Gosselin, K.M., Kivenson, V., Liu, R.M., Nelson, R.K., Sylva, S.P., Reddy, C.M. (2019) Examining inputs of biogenic and oil-derived hydrocarbons in surface waters following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. ACS Earth and Space Chemistry 3(7): 1329-1337.

WPCR (2022) Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. Available at:›eskiler›2022/12 (accessed 1 Jul 2023) (in Turkish).

New data on the spreading of the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1838) in the Mediterranean Sea

New data on the spreading of the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1838) in the Mediterranean Sea

Vincenzo Di Martino, Bessy Stancanelli 

ORCID IDs: V.D.M. 0000-0002-5987-0954; B.S. 0000-0001-7126-0633

CNR/ISAFoM (National Research Council of Italy/Institute for Agricultural and Forestry System in the Mediterranean); via Empedocle, 58; 95128 Catania, ITALY
Aqua Stories; via Vampolieri, 25/31 int. 27; 95022 Aci Catena (Catania), ITALY


Fangtooth moray, Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1838), native to the tropical Atlantic Ocean, has a rapid expansion in the eastern and central sectors of the Mediterranean in the last thirty years. This species is now beginning to colonize along the Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea and the western Mediterranean. In summer of 2021 and 2022, 12 specimens of fangtooth moray were recorded in Puglia (Adriatic Sea), Sardinia and Sicily. As hypothesized in previous studies, it seems probable that the successful expansion of this species is due both to the long pelagic period of its larval stage and to the increase in the temperature of the Mediterranean waters.

Keywords: Enchelycore anatina, Adriatic Sea, central Mediterranean, western Mediterranean

pdf-dl icon


Albérola, C., Millot, C. (1995) On the seasonal and mesoscale variabilities of the Northern current during the PRIMO-0 experiment in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanologica Acta 18: 163-192.

Altan, H. (1998) A dream world at the bottom of the Aegean: Sarigerme. Gezi, National Geographic Traveler 1: 60-75. (in Turkish)

Bartulović, V., Dobroslavić, T., Onukijević, J., Glamuzina, B. (2017) Undergoing invasion of the fangtooth moray, Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1838) in the Adriatic Sea – Evidence of post spawning reproduction stage. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 58: 247-249.

Ben-Tuvia, A., Golani, D. (1984) A west African fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Copeia 2: 541-544.

Camilleri, M., Ragonese, S., Darmanin, M., Rosso, B. (2005) The discovery of a specimen of Lobotes surinamensis off the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean Sea). Biologia Marina Mediterranea 12: 480-483.

Can, A., Bilecenoglu, M. (2005) Demersa Fish Atlas of the Seas of Turkey. Arkadas Publisher, Ankara, Türkiye (in Turkish)

Crocetta, F., Galil, B.S. (2012) The invasive spotted sea hare Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Aplysiidae): New records and spread pattern in the Mediterranean. Vie et Milieu 62: 43-46.

Deidun, A., Watson, D., Castriota, L., Mazza, G., Pasolli, L. (2015) First record of the fangtooth moray, Enchelycore anatina (Actinopterygii: Anguilliformes: Muraenidae), from Maltese waters, Central Mediterranean. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 45: 315-317.

Dailianis, T., Akyol, O., Babali, N., Bariche, M., Crocetta, F., Gerovasileiou, V., Chanem, R., Gökoğlu, M., Hasiotis, T., Izquierdo-Munoz, A., Julian, D., Katsanevakis, S., Lipez, L., Mancini, E., Mytilineou, C., Ounifi Ben Amor, K., Ozgul, A., Ragkoukis, M., Rubio-Portillo, E., Servello, G., et al. (2016) New Mediterranean biodiversity records (July 2016). Mediterranean Marine Science 17(2): 608-626.

Dulčić, J., Dragičević, B., Antolović, N., Sulić-Šprem, J., Kožul, W., Grgičević, R. (2014) Additional records of Lobotes surinamensis, Caranx crypsos, Enchelycore anatina, and Lagocephalus sceleratus (Actinopterygii) in the Adriatic Sea. Acta Ichthylogica et Piscatoria 44: 71-74.

Duncan, R.P., Bomford, M., Forsyth, D.M., Conibear, L. (2001) High predictability in introduction outcomes and the geographical range size of introduced Australian birds: a role for climate. Journal of Ecology 70: 621-632.

Ergüden, D., Gürlek, M., Uygur, N., Turan, C. (2013) Occurrence of fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1839) (Muraenidae) in Iskenderun Bay, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey. Biharean Biologist 7: 108-110.

Fischer, W., Bauchot, M.L., Schneider, M. (1987) Fiches FAO d’identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. (Révision 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de Pêche 37, vol II. Vertébrés. FAO, Rome, Italy: Service des ressources marines, département des pêches de la FAO, pp. 761-1530.

Golani, D., Orsi-Relini, L., Massuti E., Quignard, J.P. (2002) CIESM Atlas of Exotic Species in the Mediterranean. CIESM Publishers, Monaco.

Golani, D., Özturk, B., Basusta, N. (2006) Fishes of the Eastern Mediterranean. Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication no: 24, Istanbul, Türkiye.

Guidetti, P., Causio, S., Licchelli, C. (2012) The first record of Enchelycore anatina (Muraenidae: Pisces) in the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean basin). Marine Biodiversity Records 5: e22, doi:

Ibrahim, S.M., Abdulrazziq, A.A., Abdulghani, A., Al Mabruk, S.A.A., Salvatori, D., Zava, B., Corsini-Foka, M., Deidum, A. (2022) First record of Enchelycore anatina (Muraenidae) from Libyan Waters and an additional record from Southern Italy (Western Ionian Sea). Annales, Series Historia Naturalis 32(1): 59-66.

Iglésias, S.P., Frotté, L. (2015) Alien marine fishes in Cyprus: update and new records. Aquatic Invasions 10: 425-438.

Kalogirou, S. (2010) First record of the non-indigenous fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina from Rhodes Island, south-eastern Aegean Sea. Mediterranean Marine Science 11: 357-361.

Kapiris, K., Apostolidis, C., Baldacconi, R., Başusta, N., Bilecenoğlu, M., Bitar, G., Bobori, D., Boyaci, Y., Dimitriadis, C., Djurović, M., Dulčić, J., Durucan, F., Gerovasileiou, V., Gökoğlu, M., Koutsoubas, D., Lefkaditou, E., Lipej, L., Marković, O., Mavrič, B., Özvarol, Y., et al. (2014) New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2014). Mediterranean Marine Science 15: 198-212.

Katsanevakis, S., Acar, Ü., Ammar, I., Balci, B.A., Bekas, P., Belmonte, M., Chintiroglou, C.C., Consoli, P., Dimiza, M., Fryganiotis, K., Gerovasileiou, V., Gnisci, V., Gülşahin, N., Hoffman, R., Issaris, Y., Izquierdo-Gomez, D., Izquierdo-Muñoz, A., Kavadas, S., Koehler, L., Konstantinidis, E., et al. (2014) New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014). Mediterranean Marine Science 15: 675-695.

Katsanevakis, S., Tsiamis, K., Ioannou, G., Michailidis, N., Zenetos, A. (2009) Inventory of alien marine species of Cyprus (2009) Mediterranean Marine Science 10(2): 109-133.

Lasram, F.B.R., Tomasini, J.A., Romdhane, M.H., Chi, T.D., Mouillot, D. (2009) Historical colonization of the Mediterranean Sea by Atlantic fishes: do biological traits matter? Hydrobiologia 607: 51-62.

Lipej, L., Furlan, B., Antolović, N., Golani, D., Dulčić, J. (2011) The first record of fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1839) in the Adriatic Sea. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 27: 1387-1389.

Mancinelli, G., Bardelli, R., Zenetos, A. (2021) A global occurrence database of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus. Scientific Data 8: 111.

Marletta, G., Lombardo, A. (2020) Undergoing invasion of the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1838) in the western Ionian Sea, Central Mediterranean. BioInvasions Records 9(2): 195-203.

Mizzan, L. (1993) Presence of swimming crabs of the genus Callinectes (Stimpson) (Decapoda, Portunidae) in the Venice Lagoon (North Adriatic Sea-Italy) First record of Callinectes danae Smith in European waters. Bollettinodel Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Venezia 42: 31-43.

Okuş, E., Sur, H.I., Yüksek, A., Yilmaz, I.N., Aslan-Yilmaz, A., Karhan, S.U., Oz, M.I., Demirel, N., Tas, S., Altiok, A., Müftüoglu, A.E., Gazioglu, C., Yücel, Z.Y. (2004) Project for Determination of Biological Diversity of Marine and Coastal Areas of Datca-Bozburun Special Environmental Protection Area. T.R. Ministry of Environment and Forestry Special Environmental Protection Agency, Ankara, Final Report (in Turkish).

Perzia, P., Spinelli, A., Interdonato, F., Castriota, L. (2022) Ecological indicators from spatial statistics to describe the Atlantic fangtooth moray distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. Transactions in GIS 00: 1-16.

Pirkenseer, C. (2013) First record of the moray eel Enchelycore anatina (Muraenidae, Anguilliformes) from the Messinian coast (Peloponnese, Greece). Marine Biodiversity Records 6: E135, doi: 001103.

Ragkousis, M., Zenetos, A., Ben Souissi, J., Hoffmann, R., Ghanem, Rauia., Taskin, E., Muresan, M., Karpova, E., Slynko, E., Dagli, E., Fortic, A., Surugiu, V., Macic, V., Trkov, D., Rjiba Bahri, W., Tsiamis, K., Ramos-Espla, A.A., Petovic, S., Ferraio, J., et al. (2023) Unpublished Mediterranean and Black Sea records of marine alien, cryptogenic, and neonative species. BioInvasions Records 12(2): 339-369.

Riera, F., Grau, A., Grau, A.M., Pastor E., Quetglas, A., Pou, S. (1999) Ichthyofauna associated with drifting floating objects in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Scientia Marina 63: 229-235.

Saad, A. (2005) Checklist of bony fish collected from the coast of Syria. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 5: 99-106.

Şenbahar, A.M., Özaydın, O. (2020). First sighting of the fangtooth moray, Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1839) (Muraenidae) in Central Aegean Sea coast of Turkey. Acta Biologica Turcica 33(1): 49-52.

Sbaraglia, V., Arlinghaus, R., Blumstein, B.T., Diogo, H., Giglio, V.J., Gordoa, A., Januchowski‑Hartley, F.A., Laporta, M., Lindfield, S.J., Lloret, J., Mann, B., McPhee, D., Nunes, J.A.C.C., Pita, P., Rangel, M., Kennedy Rhoades, O., Venerus, L.A., Villasante, S. (2023) A global review of marine recreational spearfshing. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries doi:

Teker, M., Gökoğlu, K., Gökoğlu, M. (2019) Phaselis’s marine biodiversity with addition of fangtoot moray (Enchelycore anatina Lowe, 1838). Phaselis 5: 169-173. (in Turkish)

Tiralongo, F., Crocetta, F., Riginella, E., Lillo, A.O., Tondo, E., Macali, A., Mancini, M., Russo, F., Coco, S., Paolillo, G., Azzurro, E. (2020) Snapshot of rare, exotic and overlooked fish species in the Italian seas: A citizen science survey. Journal of Sea Research 164: 101930. doi:

Tiralongo, F., Lillo, A.O., Tibullo, D., Tondo, E., Lo Martire, C., D’Agnese, R., Macali, A., Mancini, E., Giovos, I., Coco, S., Azzurro, E. (2019) Monitoring uncommon and non indigenous fishes in Italian waters: one year of results for the AlienFish project. Regional Studies in Marine Science 28: e100606.

Valdés, A., Alexander, J., Crocetta, F., Yokeş, M.B., Giacobbe, S., Poursanidis, D., Zenetos, A., Cervera, J.L., Caballer, M., Galil B.S., Schembri, P.J. (2013) The origin and dispersal pathway of the spotted sea hare Aplysia dactylomela (Mollusca: Opisthobranchia) in the Mediterranean Sea. Aquatic Invasions 8: 427-436.

Wolf, C.M., Garland, T., Griffith, B. (1998) Predictors of avian and mammalian translocation success: reanalysis with phylogenetically independent contrasts. Biology Conservation 86: 243-255.

Yaglıoglu, D., Turan, C., Ögrede, T. (2014) First record of blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun 1896) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae) from the Turkish Black Sea coast. Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 20: 13-17.

Yokes, B., Dervisoglu, R., Karacilk, B. (2002) An investigation of the marine biological diversity along Likya shores. Sualti Bilim ve Teknoloji Toplantisi Bildiriler Kitabı Istanbul 2000: 166-181. (in Turkish)

Zenetos, A., Gofas, S., Morri, C., Rosso, A., Violanti, D., García Raso, J.E., Çinar, M.E., Almogi-Labin, A., Ates, A.S., Azzurro, E., Ballesteros, E., Bianchi, C.N., Bilecenoglu, M., Gambi, M.C., Giangrande, A., Gravili, C., Hyams-Kaphzan, O., Karachle P.K., Katsanevakis, S., Lipej, L., et al. (2012) Alien species in the Mediterranean Sea by 2012. A contribution to the application of European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Part 2. Introduction trends and pathways. Mediterranean Marine Science 13: 328-352.

Vol.29 – 2023 – No.2

Introductory pages

New data on the spreading of the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina (Lowe, 1838) in the Mediterranean Sea
Vincenzo Di Martino, Bessy Stancanelli

Assessing total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) levels in sea water and sediment samples of Karaburun-Ildır Bay Special Environmental Protected Area on the Aegean coast of Türkiye
Pelin S. Çiftçi Türetken

Vertical and temporal distribution of phytoplankton marker pigments during massive mucilage event
Yaprak Gürkan, Ahsen Yüksek

Record of a bull ray Aetomylaeus bovinus (Myliobatidae) in a sea-cage tuna farm in the Aegean coast of Türkiye (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)
Evrim Kurtay, Okan Akyol, Aytaç Özgül, Christian Capapé

Checklist of sponges (Porifera) in the Aegean and Levantine Seas
Alper Evcen, Bülent Topaloğlu, Melih Ertan Çinar