Vertical distribution of mucilage typology in the water column after a massive mucilage formation in the surface waters of the Sea of Marmara
İ. Destan Öztürk, Sabri Mutlu, Gökhan Kaman, Fatma Bayram Partal, Ayşen Demirtaş, Senem Çağlar, Ersan Kuzyaka, Hüsne Altıok, Dilek Ediger
ORCID IDs: İ.D.Ö. 0000-0001-8915-6236; S.M. 0000-0001-9222-3102; G.K. 0000-0003-3385-0418; F.B.P. 0000-0002-5661-1439;
A.D. 0000-0001-6801-8483; S.Ç. 0000-0001-5882-9020; E.K. 0000-0002-3356-5679; H.A. 0000-0003-0362-4938; D.E. 0000-0003-4417-8815
Department of Physical Oceanography and Marine Biology, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, Istanbul University, Istanbul, TURKEY
Turkish Marine Research Foundation (TUDAV), P.O.Box 10, Beykoz, Istanbul, TURKEY
TUBITAK MRC Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, Kocaeli, 41470, TURKEY
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Istanbul University, Vezneciler, Istanbul, 34134 TURKEY
The vertical distribution of mucilage aggregates is described for the Sea of Marmara in July 2021. In order to understand the vertical distribution of mucilage aggregates, CTD measurements and underwater video records were obtained from 10 stations in the Sea of Marmara. Nine different types of mucilage aggregates were observed during this study. Flocs were observed in the entire surface waters of the Sea of Marmara. The biggest type of mucilage aggregates in terms of size was clouds. Vertical distribution of mucilage in the water column had a distinct distribution for different types and this distribution was same for all regions. Even though it was not possible to monitor the deep basin, this study confirms that mucilage aggregates passed the halocline and were recorded up to 60 m depth in the water column.
Keywords: Mucilage typology, mucilage aggregates, Sea of Marmara, underwater video
Aktan, Y., Dede, A., Çiftçi, P.S. (2008) Mucilage event associated with diatoms and dinoflagellates in the Sea of Marmara. Turkey. Harmful Algae News 36: 1-3.
Altıok, H., Dökümcü, K., Mutlu, S., Öztürk, İ.D., Ediger, D., Yüksek, A. (2021) Climate change indicators in the İstanbul Strait and the Sea of Marmara. In: Climate Change and Its Effect in Turkish Seas (eds., Salihoğlu, B., Öztürk, B.). Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 60, pp. 48-62 (in Turkish).
Altuğ, G., Çardak, M., Çiftçi, P.S. (2010) Occurrence of Mucilage and Bacterial Interactions in the Sea of Marmara. In: Proceedings of the Symposium the Marmara Sea 2010, 25-26 September 2010 (ed., Öztürk, B.), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication no: 32, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 456-463.
Balcı, M., Balkıs, N., Durmuş, T., Sivri, N. (2014) Seasonal variations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in the coastal waters of the Kapıdağ Peninsula (Marmara Sea). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 23(12b): 3391-3399.
Balkıs, N. (2007) Variations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a in the coastal area of Baltalimani (Bosphorus-Turkey). Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 16: 1429- 1434.
Balkıs, N., Atabay, H., Türetgen, I., Albayrak, S., Balkıs, H., Tüfekçi, V. (2011) Role of single-celled organisms in mucilage formation on the shores of Büyükada Island (the Marmara Sea). J Mar Biol Assoc of the UK 91: 771-781.
Balkıs-Özdelice, N., Durmuş, T., Balcı, M. (2021) A Preliminary Study on the Intense Pelagic and Benthic Mucilage Phenomenon Observed in the Sea of Marmara. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8(4): 414-422.
Beşiktepe, Ş.T., Sur, H.I., Özsoy, E., Latif, M.A., Oǧuz, T., Ünlüata, Ü. (1994) The circulation and hydrography of the Marmara Sea. Progress in Oceanography 34(4): 285-334.
Çiftçi Türetken, P.S., Çardak, M., Zeki, S. (2016) Bacteriological studies of the sea of Marmara. In: The Sea of Marmara, Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance (eds., Özsoy, E., Çağatay, M.N., Balkıs, N., Balkıs, N., Öztürk, B.). Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 42, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 307-325.
Degobbis, D., Malej, A., Fonda Umani, S. (1999) The mucilage phenomenon in the northern Adriatic Sea: a critical review of the present scientific hypotheses. Annali dell’Istituto Superiore di Sanità 35: 373-381.
Ediger, D., Beken, Ç., Yüksek, A., Tuğrul, S. (2016) Eutrophication in the Sea of Marmara. In: The Sea of Marmara; Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance (eds., Özsoy, E., Çağatay, M.N., Balkıs, N., Balkıs, N., Öztürk, B.) Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 42, Istanbul, Turkey, pp. 723-736.
Ergul, H.A., Aksan, S., İpşiroğlu, M. (2018) Assessment of the consecutive harmful dinoflagellate blooms during 2015 in the Izmit Bay (the Marmara Sea). Acta Oceanologica Sinica 37(8): 91-101.
Fernandes, L.F., Frassão-Santos, E.K. (2011) Mucilaginous species of Thalassiosira Cleve emend: Hasle (Diatomeae) in South Brazilian waters. Acta Botanica Brasilica 25: 31-42.
Fukao, T., Kimoto, K., Yamatogi, T., Yamamoto, K., Yoshida, Y., Kotani, Y. (2009) Marine mucilage in Ariake Sound, Japan, is composed of transparent exopolymer particles produced by the diatom Coscinodiscus granii. Fisheries Science 75: 1007-1014.
Innamorati, M., Nuccio, C., Massi, L., Mori, G., Melley, A. (2001) Mucilages and climatic changes in the Tyrrhenian Sea. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 11(4): 289-298.
İşinibilir, M., Yılmaz, İ.N. (2016) Jellyfish species of the Sea of Marmara. In: The Sea of Marmara, Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance (eds., Özsoy, E., Çağatay, M.N., Balkıs, N., Balkıs, N., Öztürk, B.). Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 42, İstanbul, Turkey, pp: 390-400.
Keleş, G., Yılmaz, S., Zengin, M. (2020) Possible economic effects of musilage on Sea of Marmara fisheries. International Journal of Agriculture Forestry and Life Sciences 4(2): 173-177.
Lancelot, C. (1995) The mucilage phenomenon in the continental coastal waters of the North Sea. Science in the Total Environment 165: 83-102.
McKenzie, L., Sims, I., Beuzenberg, V., Gillespie, P. (2002) Mass accumulation of mucilage caused by dinoflagellate polysaccharide exudates in Tasman Bay, New Zeland. Harmful Algae 1: 69-83.
Mecozzi, M., Acquistucci, R., Di Noto, V., Pietrantonio, E., Amirici, M., Cardarilli, D. (2001) Characterization of mucilage aggregates in Adriatic and Tyrrhenian Sea: structure similarities between mucilage samples and the insoluble fractions of marine humic substance. Chemosphere 44: 709-720.
Misic, C., Schiaparelli, S., Harriague, A.C. (2011) Organic matter recycling during a mucilage event and its influence on the surrounding environment (Ligurian Sea, NW Mediterranean). Cont Shelf Res 31: 631-643.
Najdek, M., Blažina, M., Djakovac, T., Kraus, R. (2005) The role of the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium in a mucilage event in the northern Adriatic Sea: Coupling with high salinity water intrusions. J Plankton Res 27(9): 851-862.
Najdek, M., Degobbis, D., Miokovic, D., Ivancic, I. (2002) Fatty acid and phytoplankton composition of different types of mucilaginous aggregates in the northern Adriatic Sea. J Plankton Res 24: 429-441.
Nikolaidis, G., Aligizaki, K., Koukaras, K., Moschandreou, K. (2008) Mucilage phenomena in North Aegean Sea, Greece: another harmful effect of dinoflagellates. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Harmful Algae. September, 4-8, 2006, ISSHA, UNESCO, Denmark.
Orhon, D., Uslu, O., Meriç, Salihoğlu, S., Filibeli, I. (1994) Waste-water management for Istanbul: basis for treatment and disposal. Environ Pollut 84: 167-178.
Otero, M., Garrabou, J., Vargas, M. (2013) Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas and Climate Change: A Guide to Regional Monitoring and Adaptation Opportunities. IUCN, Malaga, Spain.
Özalp, H.B. (2021) First massive mucilage event observed in deep waters of Çanakkale Strait (Dardanelles), Turkey. Journal of the Black Sea/Medit Environ 27(1): 49-66.
Özalp, H.B., Kersting, D.K. (2020) A pan-Mediterranean extinction? Pinna nobilis mass mortality has reached the Turkish Straits System. Marine Biodiversity 50(5): 1-2.
Öztürk, İ.D., Sümen, S.G. (2020) Unusual mass mortality of jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo on the coast of the Sea of Marmara in December 2020. Journal of the Black Sea/Medit Environ 26(3): 343-351.
Polat, Ç., Tuğrul, S. (1995) Nutrient and organic carbon exchanges between the Black and Marmara Seas through the Bosphorus Strait. Cont Shelf Res 15 (9): 1115-1132.
Polat, Ç., Tuğrul, S., Çoban, Y., Baştürk, Ö., Salihoğlu, İ. (1998) Elemental composition of seston and nutrient dynamics in the Sea of Marmara. Hydrobiologia 363: 157-167.
Precali, R., Giani, M., Marini, M., Grilli, F., Ferrari, C.R., Pečar, O., Paschini, E. (2005) Mucilaginous aggregates in the northern Adriatic in the period 1999-2002: Typology and distribution. Science of the Total Environment 353: 10-23.
Savun-Hekimoğlu, B., Gazioğlu, C. (2021) Mucilage Problem in the Semi-Enclosed Seas: Recent outbreak in the Sea of Marmara. International Journal of Environment and Geoinformatics 8(4): 402-413.
Schiaparelli, S., Castellano, M., Povero, P., Sartoni, G., Cattaneo-Vietti, R. (2007) A benthic mucilage event in North-Western Mediterranean Sea and its possible relationships with the summer 2003 European heatwave: short term effects on littoral rocky assemblages. Mar Ecol 28: 1-13.
Stachowitsch, M., Fanuko, N., Richter, M. (1990) Mucus aggregates in the Adriatic Sea: An overview of types and occurrence. Mar Ecol 11: 327-350.
Syrski, D. (1872) Sulle masse glutinose osservate nei mesi di Giugno e Luglio nella parte settentrionale dell’Adriatico; Trieste, Tip. Hermanstofer (in Italian).
Taş, S., Ergül, H.A., Balkıs, N. (2016) Harmful algal blooms (HABs) and mucilage formations in the Sea of Marmara. In: The Sea of Marmara, Marine Biodiversity, Fisheries, Conservation and Governance (eds., Özsoy, E., Çağatay, M. N., Balkıs, N., Balkıs, N., Öztürk, B.), Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Publication No: 42, İstanbul, Turkey, pp. 768-786.
Terbıyık Kurt, T., Polat, S., Uysal, Z., Ak Örek, Y. (2020) Spatial and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton biomass in the Turkish Straits System in spring and autumn seasons. Acta Aquatica Turcica 16(2): 189-201.
Toklu Alıçlı, B., Polat, S., Balkis-Özdelice, N. (2020) Temporal variations in the abundance of picoplanktonic Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) during a mucilage event in the Gulfs of Bandırma and Erdek. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Sciences 233: 106513.
Tuğrul, S., Gürses, O., Yüksek, A. (2015) MAREX: Turkish Straits System – Marmara Sea Experiments report, METU IMS, 33 pp.
Tuğrul, S., Polat, Ç. (1995) Quantitative comparison of the influxes of nutrients and organic carbon into the Sea of Marmara both from anthropogenic sources and from the Black Sea. Water Science and Technology 32(2): 115-121.
Tuğrul, S., Polat, Ç., Baştürk, Ö., Hatipoğlu, E., Yılmaz, A., Yemenicioğlu, S., Salihoğlu, İ. (1995). Chemical properties of the two-layer flow regimes in the Turkish Straits. Turkish J Marine Sciences 2(3): 81-94.
Tüfekçi, V., Balkıs, N., Beken, Ç. P., Ediger, D., Mantıkcı, M. (2010) Phytoplankton composition and environmental conditions of a mucilage event in the Sea of Marmara. Turkish Journal of Biology 34: 199-210.
Ünlüata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A., Özsoy, E. (1990) On the physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits. In: The Physical Oceanography of the Straits, (ed. Pratt, J.), NATO/ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 25-60.
Yüksek, A. (2021) The reasons for occurrence of sea snot/mucilage in the Sea of Marmara. In: Ecology of the Marmara Sea: Formation and Interactions of Marine Mucilage, and Recommendations for Solutions (eds., Öztürk, İ., Şeker, M.) Turkish Academy of Science, Ankara, pp. 85-104.