Phenological observations on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile medows along the coast of Akkum (Sıgacık Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey)

Berrin Dural

Ege University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Bornova, TURKEY


Phenological observations were carried out on Posidonia oceanica meadows between December 1994 and April 1995 along the coast of Akkum (Sıgacık Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey) from two shallow depths (1-3 m; 4-7 m). The highest flowering density of 136 inflorescence / m2 was observed in the 4-7 m depth during January 1995. Inflorescences more often occured on the orthotropic rhizomes in the dense beds. Inflorescence mostly bore 2 rarely 1 or 3 spikes, distichous with 2-3 flowers with a male flower and a sterile extension at the apex. Fruits started maturing in February and got mature during April. Plants at the 4-7 m depth produced 15 mature fruits from a total of 19 flowers in seven inflorescences. Shoot density was found to be maximum (880 shoots / m2) during December, with 7420 leaves / m2), at the 4-7 m depth. The leaf lengths of the plants at the 4-7 m depth gradually increased from December to April. Phenological differences between the two depths were mainly due to the fact that the plants in the sparse and isolated meadows in the shallower areas had short and even falciform leaves, compared to the ones in the deeper and central areas.

Keywords: Seagrass, Posidonia oceanica, phenology, the Aegean Sea, Turkey

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Alien fish species in the Mediterranean – Black Sea Basin

Muammer Oral

Istanbul University, Faculty of Fisheries, Marine Biology Department. Laleli, Istanbul, TURKEY


Alien Fish (Synonyms: non-native, non-indigenous, allochthonous, and exotic) species have been introduced to the Mediterranean-Black Sea Basin via the Suez Canal, Gibraltar or in ballast water. The number of alien fish species increased recently in the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin because of the opening of the Suez Canal, climate change and international shipping activities. The aim of this review is to compile all relevant data for the alien fish species in both the Black and the Mediterranean Seas. As a result a total of 160 alien fish species have been reported from the Black Sea-Mediterranean Basin. There are 67 species introduced from the Atlantic Ocean via the Gibraltar, three species of which are originated from the Boreal Atlantic, 86 species introduced from the Red Sea via the Suez Canal, four species of which are originated from the Pacific Ocean. The number of alien fish species increased 68.42 % between years 2002-2010. Some alien fishes mostly in the eastern Mediterranean were well colonized, recently, such as Indo-Pacific species Atherinomorus forskaliiFistularia commersonii, Lagocephalus sceleratus and Etrumeus teres in the western Mediterranean. Regionally, there are 40 species of the Aegean Sea, three species from the Marmara Sea, five species from the Black Sea, 96 species from the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 26 species from the Ionian Sea, 36 species from the Tyrrhenian Sea, 14 species from the Algerian coasts, 43 species from the Alboran Sea, 21 species from the Adriatic Sea, six species from the Ligurian Sea, 10 species from the Gulf of Lion and 10 species from the Tunisian coasts were reported in total of 160 alien fish species.

Keywords: Mediterranean, Aegean, Sea of Marmara, Black Sea, alien fish species

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Water resources and its quality in arid and semi arid areas: the case of the NW of Algeria

F. Hadji, A. Marok, A. Belmouhoub, L. Benaabidate, B. Dahmani, K. M. Taleb

Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, P.O. Box: 119, Tlemcen, ALGERIA
Laboratory of Georesources and Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of Fez, P.O. Box: 2202, 30000, MOROCCO
Laboratory of spectrochemistry and structural pharmacology. Faculty of Engineering Sciences, P.O. Box: 119, Tlemcen, ALGERIA


Hydrogeological and hydrochemical investigations were carried out to evaluate the groundwater resources and their quality in the North-west of Algeria. The studied aquifers are Maghnia and Zriga, Ain Sefra and Bechar-Abadla. The water types of these aquifers are dominated by sulphate and chloride. Climatic conditions and geological characteristics seem affecting the physico-chemical properties of ground waters. The concentrations of water in dissolved elements are controlled especially by evaporation and weathering of evaporitic and saline formations, the majority values of conductivity and hardness are higher than WHO drinking standards, as well as concentrations in certain ions as Na+, Cl– and SO4 2- .

Keywords: Algeria, water resources, aridity, evaporitic formation, drinking water

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Some air and water pollution indicators in and around the Lake Abant, Turkey

Mesut Doğan, Bayram Kızılkaya

Istanbul University, Faculty of Letters, Department of Geography, Istanbul, TURKEY
Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Science and Technology Application and Research Center-Central Laboratory, Çanakkale, TURKEY


In this paper was discussed some implications of landuse induced pollution around Lake Abant, Turkey, on the 00000 basis of field observations and some analytical data. The extent of air and water pollution was considered using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and ion chromatography analyses. The ICP-AES results obtained from lichen Xanthoria parietina implied the existence of heavy metal accumulation (Fe>Al>Mn>Ba>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cr>B>Co>Cd), caused possibly by traffic load in the study area. Lake waters seem to reach to a considerable extent. Howbeit, air and water pollution form a potential risk for the lake environment in case human load by recreation and tourism activities continue. Thus, pollution-prevention precautions should be taken for sustainable use of the lake.

Keywords: Pollution, landuse, heavy metal concentration, ICP-AES, ion chromatography, Lake Abant (Turkey)

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Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment

Sayhan Topcuoğlu, Önder Kılıç, Murat Belivermiş, Halim Aytekin Ergül, Gülşah Kalaycı

Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34134 Vezneciler, Istanbul, TURKEY
Kocaeli University Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Biology, Izmit, TURKEY


The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.

Key words: Heavy metals, marine algae, Turkish marine environment

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Clastogenic studies on Tandaha Dam water in Asser

Kamel Ahmad, Jaber Saleh

King Khalid University, Faculty of Science, Dept. of Biology, Abha, zip code 61413 P.O. Box 9004, SAUDI ARABIA


Clastogenic effects of home wastes and agricultural contaminates of Tandaha dam located at Alahad municipality in the southwestern part of Saudi Arabia were investigated in peripheral erythrocytes of Rana ridibunda. Examination of blood smears showed that the formation of micronuclei significantly increased during one year (f=9.89, df=3) with p value < 0.05 and were more abundant compared to the control group. This increase in the formation of micronucleus indicates that agricultural pollution increases the risk of clastogenic effects on peripheral erythrocytes of Rana ridibunda and may has similar effects on the human population located around the dam.

Keywords: Clastogenic effects, Rana ridibunda, environmental genotoxicity, micronucleus test, Tandaha dam, peripheral erythrocytes.

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Environmental impact assessment of lesser-known creek in Benghazi

Joel Prashant Jack, Ibrahim Al-Ghaweel, Ayman A. Naas

Department of Environment, Faculty of Public Health, Post Box: 18251 Al- Arab Medical University, Benghazi, LIBYA


Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for lesser- known creek in Benghazi was taken for initial monitoring to add data base system by taking environmental factors and water variables into consideration in order to evaluate, protect and sustainable use of lesser known creek within the city. Temperature had played a dominant role in assessing the importance of physical factors in setting the vertical limits of zonation pattern in coastal communities. However, the daily warming of creek waters, in addition to that the pollutants present in the creek, with the help of solar radiation, produce warm mixed layer of water during the course of the day. This development of this mixed layer largely depend on wind and surface currents in turn will play a key role for the productivity and also the growth of both phytoplankton and zooplankton in certain areas in the creek. Whereas, continuous addition of pollutants all along the creek especially near fish market lead to decline of water quality and increase of organic matter. Temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH will determine water quality and the redistribution of flora and fauna in the creek.

Keywords: Environment impact assessment (EIA), creek, water quality

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Anionic detergent LAS pollution and discharged amount from Turkish coasts to the Black Sea during 2004-2007

Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Cem Gazioğlu, Burak Çoban

Turkish Research Marine Foundation (TUDAV), Beykoz, 10, Istanbul, TURKEY
Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Science and Management, BERKARDA Remote Sensing and GIS Laboratory, Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Zonguldak, TURKEY


In this work LAS pollution was investigated at 82 stations of Turkish Black Sea coast and discharged LAS amount given to the Black Sea from undercurrent (Mediterranean Sea water) of Bosphorus and rivers of Turkey flow to the Black Sea during 2004-2007. The maximum LAS levels were measured during the years in the examined area are (μg/l): in 2006 as 82.91, at st.4 (Terkos, west part 1), 136.56 at st.13A (Zonguldak, west part 2) and 86.88 at st.47 (Giresun, east part) and in 2007 as 398.78 at st.13A (Zonguldak). Among the Turkish cities located in the Black Sea coast, the highest level LAS has been found in Zonguldak harbour (st.37A) in 2005, 2006 and 2007. LAS level in the east part (Sinop-Hopa) was found generally lower than west part (Şile-Ayancık) of Turkish coast of the Black Sea. The maximum level was found (μg/l) in the cities Giresun (st.47), 86.88, Ordu (st.44) 68.43, Samsun (st.35) 69.49, Hopa (st.62) 71.56 in 2006. LAS level was found not uniform in investigated area of the Black Sea. Its distribution strongly affected by sea current. There are two currents in the Turkish straits; Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles. Upper current carries the Black Sea water directed to the Sea of Marmara then the Aegean Sea/Mediterranean Sea. The sewage of Istanbul city is dumped from various plants into undercurrent of Mediterranean Sea flow to the Black Sea via Bosphorus. The quantity of undercurrent water is an average 193 kmper year. The maximum amount of LAS found in undercurrent Bosphorus was (μg/l): 63.56 in 2004, 36.5 in 2005, 118.77 in 2006 and 101.92 in 2007. Discharged LAS amount was estimated to the Black Sea from the undercurrent of Bosphorus as: 12352 t/y in 2004, 7044 t/y in 2005, 22774 t/y in 2006 and 19686 t/y in 2007. From the Turkish rivers as: Sakarya 225 t/y, Bartın 148 t/y, Kızılırmak 122 t/y and Yeşilırmak 168 t/y. Total LAS amount was estimated to be 20349 t/y from Turkish part to the Black Sea in 2007. When the pollution level between the monitoring years is compared and the year 2006 (except as st.13 in 2007) is found highest in all examined stations. In this investigation, the loss of LAS was also studied during sampling and analysis date and found that the loss reached after 5 days of sampling up to 60% and after 10 days 80%. These findings showed that the determination of LAS must be done immediately just after the sampling. This study is a first record for the detergent pollution in Turkish Black Sea coast and LAS amount given from Turkey to the Black Sea.

Keywords: LAS level, Turkish Black Sea coast, undercurrent of Bosphorus and rivers.

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Vol.16 – 2010 – No.1

Anionic detergent LAS pollution and discharged amount from Turkish coasts to the Black Sea during 2004-2007
Kasım Cemal Güven, Filiz Nesimigil, Selin Cumalı, Ahmet Yalçın, Cem Gazioğlu, Burak Çoban

Environmental impact assessment of lesser-known creek in Benghazi
Joel Prashant Jack, Ibrahim Al-Ghaweel, Ayman A. Naas

Clastogenic studies on Tandaha Dam water in Asser
Kamel Ahmad, Jaber Saleh

Use of marine algae as biological indicator of heavy metal pollution in Turkish marine environment
Sayhan Topcuoğlu, Önder Kılıç, Murat Belivermiş, Halim Aytekin Ergül, Gülşah Kalaycı

Some air and water pollution indicators in and around the Lake Abant, Turkey
Mesut Doğan, Bayram Kızılkaya

Water resources and its quality in arid and semi arid areas: the case of the NW of Algeria
F. Hadji, A. Marok, A. Belmouhoub, L. Benaabidate, B. Dahmani, K. M. Taleb

Alien fish species in the Mediterranean – Black Sea Basin
Muammer Oral

Phenological observations on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile medows along the coast of Akkum (Sıgacık Bay, Aegean Sea, Turkey)
Berrin Dural