The coastal productivity and mariculture activities in Turkey

The coastal productivity and mariculture activities in Turkey

Altan Acara, Erdoğan Okuş

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, Atatürk Bulvarı, 221, Çankaya, Ankara, TURKEY


The Turkish coastal regions where the edge of the seaward continental shelf lies at around the 200 m depth contour constituting a small portion of the sea that over 90 percent of the catch are taken. In these coastal regions several major distinct biogeographical regions can be identified such as the Black Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Aegean and the Mediterranean coastal regions. This is the result of a combination of factors including primarily the influence of the warm, saline waters of the Mediterranean Sea and the relatively cool, less saline rich nutrient water of the Black Sea. The Turkish Black Sea coastal region has generally narrow continental shelf with a large fresh water input increase the productivity of the area where 80 percent of the coastal shelf annual catch are taken compare with the Mediterranean Sea where the continental shelf and fresh water input are narrow and small respectively where the catch represent about only 4 percent of the total annual catch. The Sea of Marmara coastal region is a mixing area between these two different seas and represent about 12 percent of the total annual catch. The increasing demand on living resources is growing recognition of the potential of mariculture with a certain limitations in the coastal regions of Turkey. This paper attempts to collect existing data to prepare a country report on this subject.

Keywords: Turkish coastal regions, the Black Sea, the Marmara Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea


Acara, A., Gözenalp, F. (1959). The Northern Lagoons of the Sea of Marmara. Gen. Fish Coun. Medit. 5: :235-239.

Acara, A. (1992). Fisheries Economics, 1985-91, Production, Price Variation. State Planning Organization, Ankara, (Turkish).

Acara, A. (1994). Fisheries Economics, Production, Price Variation, State Planning Organization, Ankara, (Turkish).

Acara, A. (1995). Fisheries Economics, Production, Price Variation, State Planning Organization, Ankara, (Turkish).

Ackefors, H. and Rosen, C.G. (1979). Farming the World’s Water Environment 21 (9): 16-20, 38-41.

Battaglia, B. (1990). Eutrophication-related phenomena in the Adriatic Sea and in other Mediterranean Coastal Zones. Water Pollution Research Report, 16, p.p. 9-11. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.

Caddy, J.F. (1993). Toward a Comparative Evaluation of Human Impacts on Fishery Ecosystems of Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas. Reviews in Fisheries Science. 1 (1): 57-95.

Cunningham, S., Dunn, M.R. and Whitmarsh, D. (1985). Fisheries Economics, An Introduction. Mansell Publishing Limited, London. p.p. 1-372.

Gowen, R.J. (1990). An Assessment of the Impact of Fish Farming on the Water Column and Sediment Ecosystems of Irish Department of the Marine Environment, Dublin.

Gulland, J.A. (1983). World Resources of Fisheries and their Management. Marine Ecology 5 (2). 839-1061.

Henningsen, J. (1991). Integrated Coastal Management: Challenges and Solutions. In: Proceedings of the European Coastal Conservation Conference. 19- 21 November 1991, p.p. 1-25, The Hauge.

Ketchum, B.H. (1972). The Water’s Edge: Critical Problems of the Coastal Zone. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Lieonart, J. (1993). Trends in Mediterranean Fisheries Yields. Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea. Technical Annex to Working Document for the Meeting. 10-11 September, Corfu, Greece.

Northeidge, S. and Di Narale, A. (1991). The Environmental Effects of Fisheries in the Mediterranean. Marine Resources Assessment Group Ltd., London.

Odum, E.P. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology. W.B. Saunders Company, London.

JICA. (1993). Report of Demersal Fisheries Resource Survey in the Republic of Turkey.

Ricker, W.E. (1963). Handbook of Computations for Biological Statistics of Fish Population. Fish Res. Bd. Canada. Bull. 119, Ottawa.

Stanners, D. and Bourdeau, P. (1995). Europe’s Environment. p.p. 1-676.

Uyguner, B. and Gözenalp, F. (1959). Turkish Coastal Lagoons. Gen. Fish Coun. Medit. 5: 241-246.

Waldichuk, M. (1974). Coastal Marine Pollution and Fish. Ocean Management, 2: 1- 60. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.


The marine coastal zone management and scientific research priorities

The marine coastal zone management and scientific research priorities

Altan Acara

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey, Ankara, TURKEY


The Turkish coastal zone where the edge of the seaward continental shelf lies at about the 200 m. depth contour constituting a small portion of the sea that over 90 percent of the catch are taken, human activities are often concentrated, often least able to assimilate those activities and where adverse effects are most apparent. The coastal zones contribute wealth to the Turkish economy about $ 1.3 billion sea food industry, about $ 4.0 billion marine transportation industry and about $ 4.0 billion tourism industry which totals $ 9.3 billion annually. There is often a conflict of uses within the coastal zone where one use might have an adverse impact on another actual or potential use. The coastal zone is a system made interlinked social and natural components and processes needs an action plan for its best use, implementation and enforcement by a administrative arrangement. In Turkey, the National Marine Science and Technology Researchanmd Development Programme for the coastal zone consists eight sections. They are marine science, environmental management, science and engineering, marine technology, fisheries and aquaculture, monitoring and information, related other research activities, and international relations.

Keywords: Marine coastal zone, management, research priorities


Acara, A., Gözenalp, F. (1959). The Northern Lagoons of the Sea of Marmara, Gen. Fish Coun. Medit., 5: 235-239.

Acara, A. (1992). Fisheries Economics, 1985-91, Production, Price Variation. State Planning Organization, Ankara, (Turkish).

Acara, A. (1995). Fisheries Economics, Production, Price Variation, State Planning Organization, Ankara, (Turkish).

Acara, A., Okuş., (1996). The Coastal Productivity and Mariculture Activities in Turkey, Mar. Sci. 2: 185-192.

Caddy, J.F. (1993). Toward a Comparative Evaluation of Human Impacts on Fishery Ecosystems of Enclosed and Semi-Enclosed Seas, Reviews in Fisheries Science 1 (1): 57-95.

Gulland, J.A. (1983). World Resources of Fisheries and their Management, Marine Ecology 5 (2): 839-1061.

Ketchum, B.H. (1972). The Water’s Edge: Critical Problems of the Coastal Zone. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Odum, E.P. (1971). Fundamentals of Ecology, W.B. Saunders Company, London.

Stanners, D., Bourdeau, P. (1995). Europe’s Environment, p.1-676.

Uyguner, B. and Gözenalp, F. (1959). Turkish Coastal Lagoons. Gen. Fish Coun. Medit. 5: 241-246.

Waldichuk, M. (1974). Coastal Marine Pollution and Fish. Ocean Management, 2, 1-60, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam.


Fatty acids in the blubber of the Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus (Hermann, 1779)

Zeliha Yazıcı, Bayram Öztürk

Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine,  University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY
Faculty of Fisheries, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY


In this study Mediterranean monk seal, Monachus monachus oil has been examined for the first time, using capillary gas chromatography twenty-two fatty acids(FAs) were identified from monk seal oiI. Oleic ( 18: 1n-9, 24.7 %), palmitoleic (16: 1n-7, 23 %), palmitic ( 16:0, 20.8 %), miristic (14:0, 6.2 %), cis-vacsenic (18: 1n-7, 5.7 %), docosahexaenoic (22: 6n-3, 4.7 %) and erusic (22: 1 n-7, 3.1 %),eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3, 1.3 % ) and docosapentaenoic ( 22: 5n-3. 1.2 %) acids were prominent. Combained amount of the unsaturated FAs were 133% higher then saturated. The blubber oil of the Mediterranean monk seal contained considerably less 20: 5n-3, and 22: 6n-3 than the blubbers of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the Baltık Sea, Spitsbergen, Lake Ladoga and Lake Saimaa. The differences among the FAs in these species could be due to different dietary factors and species.

Keywords: Fatty acids, monk seal blubber, Monachus monachus


Ackman, R.G., (1967). Comparative Biochemistry. Physiol. 22:907.

Anonim. (1974). Fisheries Chemistry. Overseas Technical Cooperation Agency. Japan

Kakela, R., Ackman, R.G., Hyvarien, H. (1995). Very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the blubber of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from lake Saimaa, Lake Ladoga. The Baltic Sea, and Spitssbergen. Lipids. 60: 725-734.

Caltagirone. A., (1995). The Mediterranean Monk Seal. UNEP. Mediterranean Action Plan, Regional Activity Center for Specially Protected Areas. Tunisia

Malins, D.S., Wekell, J.C., Houle, C.R., (1970): Journal of Lipid Research, 6: 100.

Menzell, D.B., Olcolt, H.S., (1964) Biochemistry Biophysics Acta, 84: 1333.

Öztürk, B., Candan, A., Erk, H., (1991). Cruise results covering the period from 1986 to 1991 on the Mediterranean monk seal occurring along the Turkish coastline council of Europe Conservation of the Mediterranean monk seal. Technical and Scientific Aspects. No: 13 Council of Europe Press, Antalya, Turkey.

Öztürk. B., (1992). Akdeniz Foku, Monachus monachus. Book (in Turkish), pp 215, Anahtar Publ., Istanbul, Turkey.

Sargent, J.R., (1976). The structure, metabolism and function of lipids in marine organisms. ln Biochemical and Biophysical Perspective in Marine Biology (Eds: Malins, D.C., Sargent, J.R.). Academic Press, London, pp 149-21 2.

Yazıcı, Z., Taveres, I.A., Stamford, P.I., Bishai, P.M. and Bennetts, A., (1992). Changes in tissue fatty acid composition in murine malignancy and following anticancer therapy. J. Cancer, 65: 163- 170.

Yazıcı, Z., Sener, A., Malaisse, W.J. (1994). Pancreatic islet and parotid cell fatty acid composition. Med. Sci. Res., 22:377-378.

Accumulation of arsenic in goby fish (Proterorhinus marmorathus) and the effect of detergent on the accumulation

Accumulation of arsenic in goby fish (Proterorhinus marmorathus) and the effect of detergent on the accumulation

Sayhan Topçuoğlu

Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, P.O. Box 1, Atatürk Airport, 34831 Istanbul, TURKEY


In this study, the accumulation of arsenic was investigated in goby fish from water pathway under laboratory conditions. The bioaccumulation rate of  74As was found to be relatively slow. The pattern of accumulation results represented by a equation of Ct=0.23 (1-e-0. 1104t). The effect of the LAS on the arsenic accumulation was also ivestigated and the result showed that the LAS had no effect significantly.

Keywords: Arsenic, accumulation, goby fish, detergent


Fowler, S.W. and Ünlü. M.Y. (1978). Factors affecting bioaccumulation and elimination of arsenic in the shrimp Lysmata seticaudata. Chemosphere, 9: 71 1-720.

Lunde, G. (1977). Occurrence and transformation of arsenic in the marine environment. Hlth Perspectives, 19: 4 7-52

Penrose, W.R., Conacher, H.B.S., Black, R., Meranger, J.C., Miles, W., Cunninghan, H.M. and Squires, W.R. (1977). Implication of inorganic/organic interconvension on fluxes of arsenic in marine food webs. Hlth Perspectives. 19: 53-59.

Topcuoğlu, S. and Birol, E. (1982). Bioaccumulation of Sodium AIkyl Sulfate, Zinc Chloride and Their Mixture in Young Goby, Proterorhinus marmorathus Turkish Journal of Nuclear Sciences 9(3): 87-100.

Topcuoğlu, S., Birol, E. and Ünlü, M. Y. (1987). Factors Affecting the Accumulation and Elimination of Silver (110mAg) in Marine lsopods. Environm. Res. 21 (3 ): 189-199.

Topcuoğlu, S., Erentürk, N., Saygı, N., Kut, D., Esen, N., Başsarı, A. and Seddigh, E. (1990). Trace Metal Levels of Fish from the Marmara and Black Sea. And Environ. Chemistry 29: 95-99.

Topcuoğlu, S., Ünlü, M.Y., Bulut, A.M., Sadıkoğlu, N. (1992). Küçükçekmece Gölünde Deterjan Kirliliği ve Toksisitesi. 8. Kimya ve Kimya Müh.Simpoz.İstanbul, 7-11 Eylül 1972. 183-187.

Topcuoğlu, S., Kut, D., Erentürk, N., Esen, N., Saygı, N. (1995). Hamsi, Lüfer, Atlantik Uskumrusu ve Yunus Balıklarında Bazı Elementlerin Seviyeleri. J.of Engin. And Environ. Sciences, 19: 307-310.

Ünlü, M. Y. and Topcuoğlu, S. (1977). Determination of LC50 and estimation of safe level of LAS detergents for larvae of two fish species in Küçükçekmece Lagoon. ÇNAEM Report No.l72.

Ünlü, M.Y. (1979). Chemical transformation and flux of different forms of arsenic in the crab Carsinus maenas. Chemosphere, 5: 269-275.

Ünlü, M.Y. and Fowler, S.W. (1979) Factors Affecting the Flux of Arsenic through the Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Marine Biology 51: 209-219.

Gas-Charged late Quaternary Sediments in Strait of Çanakkale (Dardanelles)

Gas-charged late quaternary sediments in Strait of Çanakkale (Dardanelles)

Bedri Alpar, Hüseyin Yüce, Ertuğrul Doğan

Istanbul University, Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, 34470 Vefa, Istanbul, TURKEY
Department of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, 81647 Çubuklu, Istanbul, TURKEY


The nature of bottom sediments in the Strait of Çanakkale (Dardanelles) depends on the interaction of the channel geometry and flow conditions. The sand-size sediments are found in narrow parts of the strait’s channel where high-energy conditions prevail. Such high-energy flow sections of the channel include the narrows of Çanakkale and Nara. Sand and silty sand are also distributed in narrow bands along both shores of the channel. Terrigenous mud is the major sediment type covering deeper and wider parts of the strait channel where bottom currents are relatively weak. Shallow seismic profiling shows the presence of two main seismic sedimentary sequences in the Dardanelles; late Quaternary sediments and acoustic basement. These are separated by an erosional truncation surface. The late Quaternary sediments consists of at least three sediment sub-units. These sub-units can be interpreted as Holocene posttransgression marine deposits (A1), basinward-prograding deltaic sediments deposited during the Würm glaciation (A2), and basal transgressive marine sediments (A3), possibly Tyrrhenian age. The acoustic basement is formed from the Miocene shallow marine clastic sediments distributed widely on both sides of the strait. The lower two sub-units of the late Quaternary sediments are locally gas-charged in the wider parts of the straits channel. The origin of the gas is not adequately known: it could have heen formed by fermantation reactions during the early diagenesis of sub-unit A3.  The channel of the strait appears to be fault controlled with the faults being generally parallel to the coast. Some faults are still active and cut the late Quaternary sediments.

Keywords: Dardanelles, gas-charged sediments, bottom sediments, shallow seismic


Barka, A. (1985). Geologic and tectonic evolution of some Neogene-Quaternary basins in the North Anatolian fault zone. In: Ketin Symposium: Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. Turkey, 209-227.

Curtis, C.D. (1977). Sedimentary geochemistry: environments and processes dominated by involvement of an aqueous phase. Trans R. Soc. London, (A) 286:353-372.

Defant, A. (1961). Physical Oceanography, V 1, Pergamon, Oxford, 729 p.

Dewey, J.F. and Şengör, A.M.C. (1979). Aegean and surrounding regions: complex multiplate and continuum tectonics in a convergent zone. Soc. Am. Bull. Part I. 90: 84-92.

Ergin, M., Bodur, M.N. and Ediger, V. (1991). Distribution of surficial shelf sediments in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Sea of Marmara: Strait and canyon regimes of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. Marine Geology. Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 96: 313-340.

Erol, O. (1982). The geomorphological results of the neotectonic movements in the Western Anatolia, Publication of the Turkish Geology Association, Ankara. 15-21.

Erol, O. (1987). Quaternary sealevel changes in the Dardanelles Area, Turkey, University of Ankara, Bulletin of the Faculty of DTC, 60. Anniversary, Ankara, 179-187.

Erol, O. (1992). Geomorphology and tectonics of the Çanakkale Region, Bulletin of Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists 4 (1): 147-165.

Görür, N., Çağatay, M.N., Sakinç, M., Sümengen, M., Şentürk, K., Yaltırak, C. and Tchapalyga, A. (1997). Origin of the Sea of Marmara as deducted from the Neogene to Quaternary paleogeographic evolution of its frame (lnpress).

Kırca, Z. and Eryılmaz, M. (1991). Grain size sediment distribution map of the Dardanelles (scale 1:75.000) (unpublished).

Memoranda. (1941). To accompany “Density and Current Atlas to the Bosporus and Dardanelles”, Summary of the hydrographical results concerning the Bosporus and Dardanelles, Translation of pages 222 et seq of the Merz/Möller treatise of April 1928, Hydrographic Department, HD.354a: 1- 12.

Merz, A. (1918). Die strömungen des Bosporus und Dardanellen, Verh, Deutsch. Geogr. Tages. 20.

Möller, L. (1928). Alfred Merz’ hydrographische untersuchungen in Bosporus und Dardanellen, Veroff. lnst. Meeresk., Berlin Univ., Neue Folge A. 18: 284 p.

Oğuz, T. and Sur, H.I. (1989). A two-layer model of water exchange through the Dardanelles Strait, Acta 12: 23-31.

Önem, Y. (1974). Geology of the Gelibolu Peninsula and Çanakkale Region, (in Turkish), Turkish Petroleum Company, Ankara, Report No 877: 30 p.

Özsoy, E., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A., Ünlüata, Ü., Sur, H.l. and Beşiktepe, Ş. (1988). Oceanography of the Turkish Straits, Second Annual Report, Institute of Marine Sciences, METU, I: II 0 p.

Özturan, M. (1996). Çanakkale Boğazı’nda deniz ölçmeleri ve jeofiziği, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Üni., Deniz Bilimleri ve İşletmeciliği Enstitüsü, 82 p.

Penck, W. (1917). Bau – und Oberflachenformen der Dardanellen-landschaft, Zeitschr. d. Ges. f. Erdk., Berlin, 30-49.

Sakınç, M. and Yaltırak, C. (1995). Güney Trakya sahillerinin denizel Pleistosen çökelleri ve paleocoğrafyası. Trakya Havzası Jeolojisi Sempozyumu, TPAO ve Ozan Sungurlu Bilim ve Eğitim Vakfı, Bildiri Özetleri, 38-39.

Saner, S. (1985). Sedimentary sequences and tectonic setting of Saros Gulf area, Northeast Aegean Sea, Turkey, (in Turkish), Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey, Ankara, 28: 1- 10.

Siyako, M., Bürkan, K.A. and Okay, A.İ. (1989). Tertiary geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Biga and Gelibolu Peninsulas, Bulletin of the Turkish Association of Petroleum Geologists, 1 (3): 183-199.

Smith, A.D., Taymaz, T., Oktay, F., Yüce, H., Alpar, B., Başaran, H., Jackson, J.A., Kara, S. and Şimşek, M. (1995). High-resolution seismic profiling in the Sea of Marmara (northwest Turkey): Late Quaternary sedimentation and sea-level changes. Geology Society of America Bulletin, 107(8): 923-936.

Sümengen, M., Terlemez. İ., Şentürk, K. and Karaköse, C. (1987). The stratigraphy, sedimentology and tectonics of the Gelibolu Peninsula and the Tertiary Basin at southwestern Thrace, (in Turkish), Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey, Ankara, Report no 8128.

Şengör, A.M.C. (1982). Ege’nin neotektonik evrimini yöneten etkenler. Batı Anadolu’ nun Genç Tektoniği ve Volkanizması Paneli (Eds.: O. Erol ve V. Oygür). Türkiye Jeoloji Kurumu, Ankara, 59-72.

Şengör, A.M.C., Görür, N. and Şaroğlu, F. (1985). Strike-slip faulting and related basin formation in zones of tectonic escape: Turkey as a case study. in Biddle, (Eds.: K.T. and Christie Blick, N.), Strike-slip deformation, basin formation and sedimentation. Society of Economic Palaeontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Publ. 37: 227-264.

Şentürk, K., Karaköse, C., Atalay, Z., Gürbüz, M., Ünay, E., Doruk, N and Batum, I. (1987). Çanakkale ve dolayının jeolojisi. MTA Jeoloji Etüdleri Dairesi Raporu, No.371.

Ünlüata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A. and Özsoy, E. (1990). On the physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits, The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherland, 25-60.

van Andel, T. and Lianos, N. (1984). High-resolution seismic reflection profiles for the reconstruction of postglacial transgressive shorelines: An example from Greece. Quaternary Research, 22: 3 1-45.

Yaltırak, C. (1995). Tectonic mechanism controlling the Plio-Quaternary sedimentation in the Gelibolu Peninsula. Jeofizik, The Chamber of Geophysical Engineers of Turkey, 9(1-2): 103-106.


Larger ostracoda in the sea of Marmara: general distribution of Bosquetina dentata (G.W. Muller, 1894)

Cemal Tunoğlu

Hacettepe University, Geological Engin. Dept. 06532, Beytepe, Ankara, TURKEY


Bosquetina dentata (G.W.Müller, 1894) is a benthic ostracoda specimen which has larger dimensions than the other ostracoda species of the Sea of Marmara. This species is known very common in all around of the Mediterranean. B. dentata are found and observed generally shallow-circolittoral but fairly deep-marine in the sea of Marmara.

Keywords: Ostracoda, Bosquetina dentata, sea of Marmara, recent, Turkey

General Distribution of Pterigocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850) and Pterigocythereis ceratoptera (Bosquet, 1852) (Ostracoda) in the sea of Marmara

General distribution of Pterigocythereis jonesii (Baird, 1850) and Pterigocythereis ceratoptera (Bosquet, 1852) (Ostracoda) in the sea of Marmara

Cemal Tunoğlu

Hacettepe University, Geological Engineering Departmen,. 06532 Beytepe, Ankara, TURKEY


Genus Pterigocythereis and related species are known all around of the Mediterranean recently. Pterigocythereis jonesii and P. ceratoptera are important species which they observed for the first time with this study in the benthic ostracoda thanatocoenosis and biocoenosis of the Sea of Marmara. These species have been found in all of the locations of shallow water at depths between 20-60 m. and especially in near-shore throughout the Sea of Marmara coasts. Their habitat are exist different types of substrate, but they prefer commonly on sandy mud and silty mud bottom sediments.

Keywords: Ostracoda, Pterigocythereis, Sea of Marmara


Aranki. J.F. (1987). Marine Lower Pliocene ostracoda of southern Spain with notes on the recent fauna. Publications from the Paleontological Institution of The Universty of Upsala, p. 94.

Baird. W. (1850). Description of several new species of Entomostraca, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 18, 254-257.

Bonaduce, G. Ciampo, G., Masoli, M., (1975). Distribution of ostracoda in the Adriatic Sea. Publicazioni della Stazione Zoologica d. Napoli, v.40, Sup.!, p.l54

Hartmann. G. & Puri, H., (1974). Summary of Neontological and Paleontological Classification of Ostracoda. Mitt. Hamburg Zool. Mus. Inst., 70:7-73.

Guernet C. (1990). Evolution of the genus Pterigocythereis BLAKE, 1933 (ostracode). from Cretaceous to Recent, Revue de Micropaleontologie, .33/3-4:, .279-293

Keurs, D. (1971). Development of ostracoda and foraminifera assemblages in transgressive /regressive sequences. “A paleontological investigation of the post glacial Rhone Delta complex” Paleoecologic ostracodes Pau, 1970, (Oertli, ed.), Bull. Centre Rech. Pan. SNPA. 5 suppl., 257-283.

Nazik. A. (1996). Environmental interpretation of Quaternary sediments: Küçüksu Palace (Asiatic Side of the istanbul Bosphoms, Turkey, 3rd European Ostracodologists Meeting-Paris-Bierville. July 8-12th. Abstracts, p.54.

Oertli. H.J. (De.). (1985). Atlas des Osracodes de France. Memories Elf-Aquitaine, 9, p. 396 Pan.

Sars. G.O. (1928). An account of the Crustacea of Norway, volume. IX: Ostracoda, Bergen Museum, pp. 277.

Sissingh. W. (1972). Late Cenozoic ostracoda of the South Aegean Island Arc, Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletins, p. 187.

Stancheva, M. (1963). Ostracoda from the Neogene in North-Western Bulgaria, I. Tortonian Ostracoda, Academie des Sciences de Bulgaria, Serie Paleontologie KH. V, 1-75.

Tunoğlu, C. (1996). Recent Ostracoda Association In The Sea Of Marmara. NW Turkey, 3rd European Ostracodologists Meeting- Paris-Bierville, july 8-12th, Abstracts, p. 78.

Yassini, I, (1979). The littoral system ostracodes from the Bay of Bou-Ismail, Algiers, Algeria, Revista, Espanola, de Micropaleontologia, 11: 3, 353-416

Zorn, l. (1995). Preliminary report on the ostracodes from the Ottnangian(Early Miocene) of Upper Austria, Ostracoda and Biostratigraphy, (Riha ed.), pp. 237-243 Belkema Rotterdam.




Extents of the North Anatolian Fault in the Izmit, Gemlik, and Bandırma Bays

Aykut Barka, Ismail Kusçu

ITU, Faculty of Mining Department of Geology, Ayazağa, Istanbul, TURKEY


High resolution shallow seismic reflection profiles, surveyed by MTA Sismik-1 in the Izmit, Gemlik and Bandmna bays, in 1984, were re-examined in order to understand geometry and kinematics of the northern and middle strands of the North Anatolian Fault. We used the pull-apart model to detect the course of the strands. We concluded that this approach fits well with the fault patterns and all three strands seems to have identical fault geometry and kinematics. GPS measurements geomorphology, bathimetry and tickness of sediment in the basins, and historical earthquake records in the eastern Marmara Sea region show that slip rate is higher along the northern strand than the middle strand suggesting higher earthquake risk along the northern strand of the North Anatolian Fault.

Keyword: Shallow seismic reflection profiles, lzmit, Gemlik and Bandırma Bays


Akartuna, M. (1968). Armutlu yarımadasının Jeolojisi, Ist. Üni. Fen Fak. Monog. 20, 105pp.

Akgün, M. (1987). lzmit Körfezinin jeofizik yöntemlerle incelenmesi. MSc. Thesis, DEU, lzmir.

Akgün, M. and Ergün, M. (1995). İzmit Korfezinin yap1s1 ve Kuzey Anadolu fayı (KAF) ile ilişkisinin irdelenmesi. Jeofizik, 9: 1-2, 71-78.

Ambraseys, N. N. and Finkel, C. F. (1991). Long-term seismicity of İstanbul and of the Marmara region. Engin. Seis. Earthq. Engin.Report 91/8, Imperial College.

Barka, A. A., (1991). İstanbul’un Depremselliğini oluşturan tektonik yapılar ve İstanbul için bir mikro-bölgelendirme denemesi. “İstanbul ve Deprem Sempozyumu” lnşaat Müh. Odası.

Barka, A. A. and Kadinsky-Cade, K. (1988). Strike-slip fault geometry in Turkey and its influence on earthquake activity. Tectonics, 7: 663-684.

Barka, A. A. and Gülen, L. (1988). New constraints on age and total offset of the North Anatolian Fault Zone: Implications for tectonics of the eastern Mediterranean region. Spec. Publ. Middle-East Techn. Univ. Ankara, Turkey.

Barka, A. A. (1992). The North Anatolian Fault. Annales Tectonicae, 6: 164-195.

Barka, A. A. (1993). Kuzey Anadolu Fayının Sapanca- İzmit ve Geyve- İznik Kolları Üzerinde Paleosismik Araştırmalar. Proje No: YBAG-4/7551.

Crampin, S. and Evans, R., and Üçer, B. (1985). Analysis of records of local earthquakes: Turkish dilatency project. Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 83: 1-16.

Crampin, S., Evans, R., (1986). Neotectonics of the Marmara Sea region of Turkey. J. Geol. Soc. London, 143: 343-346.

Ergün, M. and Özel, E. (1995). Structural relationship between the sea of Marmara basin and the North Anatolian Fault. Terra Nova, 7: 278-288.

Honkura, Y. and Işıkara, A.M. (1991). Multidisciplinary research on fault activity in the western part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Tectonophysics, 193:347-357.

Kavukçu, S. (1990). Active fault investigation in lzmit Bay, Bandırma Bay and Erdek Bay of Marmara Sea. Proceedings ” Historical seismicity and seismotectonics of the Mediterranean region”, Turkish Atomic Energy Authority. 238-266.

Koral, H. and Öncel, A. O. (1995). İzmit körfezinin yapısal ve sismolojik özellikleri. Jeofizik 9: 1-2, 79-82.

Kurtuluş, C. (1985). Gemlik Körfezi yüksek ayrımlı sığ sismik etüdü raporu. MTA, Jeofizik Etüdler Dairesi. 735, 6 pp.

Özhan, G., Kavukçu, S., Çete, M., Kurtuluş, C. (1985). Marmara Denizi İzmit Korfezi, yüksek ayrımlı sığ sismik etüdü raporu. MTA, Jeofizik Etüdler Dairesi.

Sakınç, M. and Bargu, S. (1989). İzmit körfezi güneyindeki Geç Pleyistosen (Tireniyen) çökel stratigrafisi ve bölgenin neotektonik özellikleri. TJK Bült. 32: 51- 64.

Şaroğlu, F., Boray, A. and Emre, O. (1987). Active faults of Turkey. Mineral Res. Explor. lnst. Turkey. Unpubl. Report 8643, 394 pp.

Straub, C. (1996). Recent crustal deformation and strain accumulation in the Marmara Sea region, NW Anatolia in ferred from GPS Measurements. PhD Thesis, ETH, 122pp.

Tsukuda, E., Herece, E. and Kuşçu, I. (1988). Some geological evidence on activity of the western North Anatolian Fault, Geyve, İznik, Gemlik area. ITIT project 8513, 68-91.

Wong, H. K., Lüdman, T., Uluğ, A., Görür, N. (1995). The sea of Marmara: a plate boundary sea in an escape tectonic regime. Tectonophysics. 244: 231-250.

Yoshioka, T. and Kuşçu, İ. (1994). Late Holosen faulting events on the İznik-Mekece fault in the western part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone, Turkey. Bull. Geol. Surv. Japan, 45: 677-685.

Late quarternary depositional environments on the outhern Marmara shelf

Late quarternary depositional environments on the southern Marmara shelf

Mustafa Ergin, Nizamettin Kazancı, Baki Varol, Özden Ileri, Levent Karadenizli

Ankara University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Geological Engineering, Tandoğan, 06100 Ankara, TURKEY


In this study, 182 surficial sediment samples have been used to investigate the characteristics of sedimentary depositional environments on the southern Marmara shelf. Grain size analyses revealed the presence of, at least, three distinct depositional zones where sediments contained relatively high sand and gravel components partly derived from the remains of benthic organisms. Zone 1 extends from the Bozburun Peninsula in the east to the west off Imralı Island in the west. Zone 2 extends from the east off Marmara Island to the east off Kapıdağ Peninsula. Zone 3 extends from west of Marmara Island towards southwest. The sediments of these three zones grade into fine-grained mud both in nearshore and offshore directions. The presence of ridge-like and high bottom reliefs, based on bathymetric profiles, further suggest that these zones could be relict features such as former shorelines resulted from the last sea-level changes. Due to lack of data, possible influences of neotectonics remain questionable. Zone 3 seems to be controlled by a complex of mechanisms. Further investigations are underway.

Keywords: Sediment, southern Marmara shelf, carbonat contents, grain size


Algan, I.M. and Akbulut, A.O.(l985) Some sedimentological characteristics of submarine deposits at the mouth of Kocasu River. Bull. Ins/. Mar. Sci. Geogr., Istanbul Univ., 2:145-154 (in Turkish).

Bodur, M.N. and Ergin,M. (1994) Geochemical characteristics of the recent sediments from the Sea of Marmara. Chemical Geology,115:73-101.

Ergin, M.,Bodur, M.N. and Ediger, V. (1991). Distribution of surficial shelf sediments in the northeastern and southwestern parts of the Sea of Marmara: Strait and canyon regimes of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus. Marine Geology,96:313- 340.

Ergin, M., Bodur, M.N., Ediger,D., Ediger,V. and Yılmaz,A. (1993) Organic carbon distribution in the surface sediments of the Sea of Marmara and its control by the inflows from adjacent water masses. Marine Chemistry,41 :311-326.

Ergin, M. (1994) Possible sources and mechanisms of manganese enrichment in the deep-sea sediments of the Marmara through depressions (NE-Mediterranean, Turkey). Oceanologica Acta, 17:535-546.

Ergin, M., Bodur, M.N., Yıldız, M., Ediger, D., Ediger, V., Yemenicioğlu, S. and Eryılmaz-Yücesoy, F. (1994) Sedimentation rates in the Sea of Marmara: a comparison of results based on organic carbon-primary productivity and 210Pb dating. Continental Shelf Research, 14:1371-1387.

Kazancı, N., Ergin, M., Varol, B., İleri, Ö., Karadenizli, L. (1996) Sedimentological studies of the surface sediments from the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. In:Proceedings of the Workshop-1 on National Marine Geological and Geophysical Programme of TÜBİTAK-Üniversitesi-MTA, İstanbul,98-10 1,8-9 February 1996.



Distribution of carbonate and organic carbon contents in late quaternary sediments of the southern Marmara shelf

M. Namık Çağatay, Oya Algan, Nuray Balkıs, Mehmet Balkıs

Institute of Marine Sciences and Management, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, TURKEY


A total of 165 surface and 81 core samples from four gravity cores were analyzed for their total carbonate and organic carbon contents. The sediments are generally low in carbonate content (<10% CaCO3) along the inner shelf. Relatively higher values (>10% CaCO3) are found on the outer shelf to the north, along a belt extending from the Bozburun Peninsula to west of Mamara Island. Patches of >20% CaCOvalues occur between the lmralı Island and Bozburun Peninsula, NE of the Kapıdağ Peninsula, and in a belt extending west from the Kapıdağ Peninsula, through the Avşa Island to Karabiga. The high carbonate areas generally correspond to the sandy sediments with high contents of shell material. Total organic carbon content of the surface sediments ranges from 0.10-2.50%, with the high values being located in shallow areas along the coast and decreasing values occuring in the offshore direction. This distribution pattern suggests that the organic-carbon matter is mainly of terrestrial origin. Depth profiles of organic carbon values along the core samples indicate the presence of a sapropel layer in two cores (No.22 and 13) in the Gemlik Gulf. The highest carbonate (8-12% CaCO3) and organic carbon values (1.7-2.11%) are found in a phosphorescent green, plastic, clayey sapropelic mud horizon at a depth ranging from 1. 75 to 2. 15 m. This layer is enriched in planktonic foraminifera but depleted in benthic foraminifera species, suggesting both the high surface organic productivity and bottom unoxic conditions. It was probably deposited following the Holocene transgression during a pluival period when increased quantities of nutrients were supplied by rivers into the Sea of Marmara and when water stratification was established. Radiometric carbon, organic and isotope geochemical studies are in progress on this layer.

Keywords: Sea of Marmara, quaternary sediments, sapropels, organic carbon, total carbonate


Anastasakis, G. C., and Stanley, D.J., (1984). Sapropel and Organic-rich variants in the Mediterranean: Sequence, development and classification. In: Fine-Grained Sediments, Deep-Water Processes and Facies (Stow DAV. Piper DJW eds). Blackwell Scientific Publication, London, pp 104-510.

Calvert, S. E., (1983). Geochemistry of Pleistocene sapropels and associated sediments from the Eastern Mediterranean. Oceanologica Acta, 6:255-267.

Calvert, S. E., (1990). Geochemistry and origin of the Holocene sapropel in the Black Sea, In Facts of modern biogeochemistry (V. lttekkot, ed.) Berlin, Springer-Verlag, pp. 327-353.

Calvert, S. E., Nielsen, B., and Fontugne, M. R., (1992). Evidence from nitrogen isotope ratios for enhanced productivity during formation of eastern Mediterranean sapropels. Nature, 359:223-225.

Cita, M. B., Vergnaud – Grazzini, C., Robert, C., Chamley, H., Ciaranti, N. and Donofrio, S., (1977). Paleoclimatic record of long deep-sea core from the eastern Mediterranean. Quaternary Research, 8: 205-235.

Demaison, G. J. and Moore, G. T., (1980). Anoxic environments and oil source bed genesis. Organic Geochemistry, 2: 9-31.

Degens, E. T., and Ross, D. A., (1974). The Black Sea-geology, chemistry and biology. AAPG Memoir, V. 20, p. 633.

Emeis, K-C., Zhan, R., and ODP legs 160 and 161 shipboard scientific party, (1996). Sapropels, Mediterranean climate, and oceanography since the Miocene. ODP First Euro Colloquium, Oldenburg, p.2.

Ergin, M.N., Bodur, M.N., Ediger, D., Ediger, V., and Yılmaz, A., (1993). Organic carbon distribution in the surface sediments of the Sea of Marmara and its control by the inflows fro adjacent water masses. Marine Chemistry, 41: 311-326.

Gaudette, H., Flight, W., Tones, L. and Folger, D. (1974). An expensive titration method for the determination of organic carbon in recent sediments. J. Sedimentary Petrology, 44:249-253.

Jorisson, F. J., et al., (1993). Late Quarternary central Mediterranean biochronology. Mar. Micropaleontology, V. 21, pp. 169-189.

Kazancı, N., Ergin, M., Varol, B., İleri, Ö. and Karadenizli, L., (1996). Marmara Denizi güney kıta sahanlığının yüzey sedimentlerinin sedimentolojik incelenmesi. TÜBİTAK, Üniversite-MTA Ulusal Deniz Jeolojisi ve Jeofiziği Programı Workshop-1, s. 98-10 I. 8-9 Şubat 1966, İstanbul.

Kidd, R. B., Cita, M. B., and Ryan, W. B. F., (1978). Stratigraphy of eastern Mediterranean sapropel sequences recovered during DSDP leg 42A and their paleoenvironmental significance. In: Init. Reps., (Hsu, K. J., Montadert, L., et al.,) DSDP, 42: 421-443.

Loring, D.H. and Rantala, R.T.T., (1992). Manual for the geochemical analyses of marine sediments and suspended particulate matter. Earth-Science Reviews, 32:235- 283.

Müller, P. J. and Suess, E. (1979). Productivity, sedimentation rate, and sedimentary organic matter in the oceans – I. Organic carbon preservation. Deep-Sea Res. 26A, 1347-1362.

Pedersen, T. F., and Calvert, S. E., (1990). Anoxia vs. Productivity: What controls the formation of organic -carbon- rich sediments and sedimentary rocks. AAPG Bull., V. 74, pp. 454-466.

Rohling, E. J., (1994). Review and new aspects concerning the formation of eastern Mediterranean sapropels, (1994). Marine Geology, 122: 128.

Schrader, H. and Maderne, A., (1981). Sapropel formation in the eastern Mediterranean: evidence from preserved opal assemblages. Micropaleontology, 27: 191-203.

Shaw, H. F. and Evans, G., (1984). The nature, distribution and origin of a sapropelic layer in sediments of the Cilicia basin, northeastern Mediterranean, Marine Geology, V.61, pp. 1-12.

Stanley, D.J. and Blanpied, C. (1980) Late Quaternary water exchange between the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Nature, 285:537-541.

Stanley, D. J., Maldonado, A. and Stuckenrath, R., (1975). Strait of Sciliy depositional rates and patterns and possible reversal currents in the late quarternary. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol, Palaeoecol., 18: 279-291.

Thunell, R. C., and Williams, D. F., (1989). Glacial-Holocene salinity changes in the Mediterranean Sea: hydrographic and depositional effects. Nature, Vol. 338, p. 493- 496.

Ünlüata, Ü., Oğuz, T., Latif, M.A. and Özsoy, E. (1990), The physical oceanography of the Turkish Straits. In The Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits. (L.J. Pratt ed.), Kluver, Dordrecht, pp. 25-60.

Ünlüata, Ü. and Özsoy, E. (1986), Oceanography of the Turkish Straits: health of the Turkish Straits: I. Oxygen deficiency of the Sea of Marmara. Rep. Ins. Marine Sci., METU, Erdemli, İçel, pp. 88.

Ünsal, M and Uysal, Z., (1988). Planktic and benthic invertebrates of the Bosphorus -Marmara junction. Rep. Ins. Marine Sci., METU, Erdemli, İçel, pp. 53.

Yılmaz, A. (1986). The origin and the nature of humic substances in the marine environment. Ph. D. Thesis, lnst. Mar. Sci., METU, Erdemli, İçel, 142 pp.