The systematic status of the Mediterranean Spicara species (Centracanthidae) inferred from mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence and morphological data

Cemal Turan

Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries, Mustafa Kemal University, Iskenderun, Hatay, TURKEY


The mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA together with morphological data were used to elucidate monophyly of the family Centracanthidae and interrelationships of Spicara and Centracanthus genera, including four species, Spicara maena, Spicara flexuosa, Spicara smaris and Centracanthus cirrus. Examination of the gene revealed a moderate amount of thymine and abundance of adenine. The 16S rDNA dataset contained 92 variable and 69 parsimony informative sites with a mean nucleotide diversity of 0.099. Haplotype diversity was found to be 0.71. No genetic differences were observed between S. maena and S. smaris, and the genetic divergence between S. flexuosa and both S. maena and S. smaris was found to be 0.005. The intergeneric divergence was found to be very high (0.237) between S. alta and C. cirrus. For the other Spicara species, intergeneric divergence ranged from 0.170 between C. cirrus and both S. maena and S. smaris to 0.176 between C. cirrus and S. flexuosa. Minumum evolution, neighbor joining and parsimony trees revealed same tree topologies, and the monophyly of the genus Spicara was not supported. S. maena and S. smaris clustered together and showed close relationship and S. flexuosa was nodded with this group. Therefore S. maena was found to be more closely related to S. smaris rather than S. flexuosa. On the other hand, S. alta highly divergently clustered outside of this group and branched with C. cirrus. Multivariate analysis of morphological data was congruent with the genetic data and revealed similar pattern of relationship among Centracanthidae species.

Keywords: Centracanthidae, Spicara, Centracanthus, Systematics, mtDNA, Sequence, Morphology


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Physical Oceanography Unit, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080 MALTA


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Vol.17 – 2011 – No.3

Monitoring of heavy metals in the sediments of the Inaouene River, Morocco
Jamal Naoura, Lahcen Benaabidate

Remediation effects of adapted bacteria cultures on water quality: an example of petrochemical industry
Nilay Barlas Turan, Gülşen Altuğ

Seasonal variations of microplankton composition in İzmit Bay (Sea of Marmara)
Ahmet Küçük, Halim Aytekin Ergül

A tale of two Atlantic fish migrants: records of the lesser amberjack Seriola fasciata and the African hind Cephalopholis taeniops from the Maltese Islands
Alan Deidun, Luca Castriota, Shaun Arrigo

Mechanisms impeding natural Mediterranization process of Black Sea fauna
Temel Oğuz, Bayram Öztürk

Fluctuating asymmetry in the otolith length and width of adult Indian mackerel Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1817) collected from Muscat waters at the Sea of Oman
Juma Mohamed Al-Mamry, Laith Jawad, Aisha Ambuali

A comparative study on the acute toxicity of cyfluthrin and tetramethrin on carp (Cyprinus carpio L. 1758)
Elif Güneş Günde, Sedat V. Yerli

Strandings of the beaked whales, Risso’s dolphins, and a minke whale on the Turkish coast of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Ayaka Amaha Öztürk, Arda M. Tonay, Ayhan Dede

Maturation, spawning and production of phyllosoma larvae of Mediterranean slipper lobster, Scyllarides latus (Latreille 1803) in captivity
Mevlüt Aktaş, Ercüment Genç, M. Ayçe Genç

A new alien jellyfish species in the Mediterranean Sea – Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa)
Cemal Turan, Mevlut Gürlek, Deniz Yağlıoğlu, Dilruba Seyhan

Vol.17 – 2011 – No.2

Recent data on the effects of sewage pollution on the assemblage of decapod crustaceans in the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System)
A. Suat Ateş, Tuncer Katağan, Murat Sezgin, Selçuk Berber, H. Göksel Özdilek, Seçil Kolsal

Relationship between fish length and otolith length and width in the lutjanid fish, Lutjanus bengalensis (Lutjanidae) collected from Muscat City coast on the Sea of Oman
Laith Jawad, Juma Al-Mamry, Haithem Al-Busaidi

The ecology of the Ostracoda (Crustacea) species obtained from the coasts of Iskenderun Bay (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)
Ferda Perçin Paçal

Some remarks on the catches of anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758), in Georgian waters by Turkish fleet between 2003 and 2009
Bayram Öztürk, Çetin Keskin, Semih Engin

First record of Chrysophaeum taylorii Lewis & Bryan and their benthic mucilaginous aggregates in the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean)
Yelda Aktan, Bülent Topaloğlu

Methane seeps in the Black Sea: discovery, quantification and environmental assessment
Viktor N. Egorov, Yuriy G. Artemov, Sergei B. Gulin, Gennadiy G. Polikarpov

A New record of Antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus Goode and Bean, 1886 (Bregmacerotidae: Gadiformes) from the Northeastern Mediterranean Coast of Turkey
Cemal Turan, Deniz Yağlıoğlu, Mevlüt Gürlek, Deniz Ergüden

Vol.17 – 2011 – No.1

A collection of recent ctenophore sightings from the Maltese Islands
Alan Deidun

The systematic status of the Mediterranean Spicara species (Centracanthidae) inferred from mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence and morphological data
Cemal Turan

Impact of wind on the dispersion of contaminants in the Lebanese northern marine area
Milad Fakhri, Jean-Claude Romano, Marie Abboud – Abi Saab

Otolith mass asymmetry in Rhynchorhamphus georgi (Valenciennes, 1846)( Family: Hemiramphidae) collected from the Sea of Oman
Laith A. Jawad, Juma M. Al-Mamry, Hager M. Al-Mamari, Manal M. Al-Yarubi, Haithem K. Al-Busaidi, Dawood S. Al-Mamary

The levels of indicator bacteria transported to the Black Sea by the Sakarya River (Karasu Region)
Pelin S. Çiftçi, Mine Çardak, Gülşen Altuğ

Age and growth of Chondrostoma meandrense in Kemer Reservoir, Turkey
Gülnaz Özcan, Süleyman Balık

On the occurrence of Diadema setosum (Leske, 1778) in Antakya Bay, Eastern Mediterranean Sea
Cemal Turan, Deniz Erguden, Necdet Uygur

The Occurrence of Atyaephyra desmarestii (Millet, 1831) (Decapoda: Atyidae ) in the Seyhan Reservoir (Seyhan River Basin)
Sibel Alagoz Ergüden, Tahir Özcan, Deniz Ergüden